Intelligence quotient

IQIQ testI.Q.intelligence testIQ testsintelligence testingintelligence testsintelligenceIQ scoreIQ testing
An intelligence quotient (IQ) is a total score derived from several standardized tests designed to assess human intelligence.wikipedia
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William Stern (psychologist)

William SternSternL. William Stern (psychologist)
The abbreviation "IQ" was coined by the psychologist William Stern for the German term Intelligenzquotient, his term for a scoring method for intelligence tests at University of Breslau he advocated in a 1912 book.
Stern also coined the term intelligence quotient, or IQ, and invented the tone variator as a new way to study human perception of sound.

Heritability of IQ

inheritance of intelligenceHeritability of intelligencegenetics of intelligence
While the heritability of IQ has been investigated for nearly a century, there is still debate about the significance of heritability estimates and the mechanisms of inheritance.
Research on heritability of IQ implies, from the similarity of IQ in closely related persons, the proportion of variance of IQ among individuals in a population that is associated with genetic variation within that population.

Intellectual disability

mental retardationintellectually disabledintellectual disabilities
IQ scores are used for educational placement, assessment of intellectual disability, and evaluating job applicants.
It is defined by an IQ under 70, in addition to deficits in two or more adaptive behaviors that affect everyday, general living.

Flynn effect

the Flynn effect“Flynn” effect
Raw scores on IQ tests for many populations have been rising at an average rate that scales to three IQ points per decade since the early 20th century, a phenomenon called the Flynn effect.
When intelligence quotient (IQ) tests are initially standardized using a sample of test-takers, by convention the average of the test results is set to 100 and their standard deviation is set to 15 or 16 IQ points.

Human intelligence

cognitive abilityintelligencecognitive abilities
An intelligence quotient (IQ) is a total score derived from several standardized tests designed to assess human intelligence.
A number of studies have shown a correlation between IQ and myopia.

Alfred Binet

BinetBinet, Alfred
French psychologist Alfred Binet, together with Victor Henri and Théodore Simon had more success in 1905, when they published the Binet-Simon test, which focused on verbal abilities.
Alfred Binet (July 8, 1857 – October 18, 1911) was a French psychologist who invented the first practical IQ test, the Binet–Simon test.

Henry H. Goddard

Henry GoddardH. H. GoddardHenry Herbert Goddard
American psychologist Henry H. Goddard published a translation of it in 1910.
He is known especially for his 1912 work The Kallikak Family: A Study in the Heredity of Feeble-Mindedness, which he himself came to regard as flawed, and for being the first to translate the Binet intelligence test into English in 1908 and distributing an estimated 22,000 copies of the translated test across the United States.

Robert Yerkes

Robert M. YerkesR. M. YerkesYerkes
This led to the development of several mental tests by Robert Yerkes, who worked with major hereditarians of American psychometrics—including Terman, Goddard—to write the test.
Robert Mearns Yerkes (May 26, 1876 – February 3, 1956) was an American psychologist, ethologist, eugenicist and primatologist best known for his work in intelligence testing and in the field of comparative psychology.

Théodore Simon

Theodore SimonSimon
French psychologist Alfred Binet, together with Victor Henri and Théodore Simon had more success in 1905, when they published the Binet-Simon test, which focused on verbal abilities.
Théodore Simon (10 July 1873 – 4 September 1961) was a French psychologist who worked with Alfred Binet to develop the Binet-Simon scale, one of the most widely used scales in the world for measuring intelligence.

Eugenics

eugenicisteugeniceugenicists
Eugenics, the set of beliefs and practices which aims at improving the genetic quality of the human population, played a significant role in the history and culture of the United States during the Progressive Era, from the late 19th century until US involvement in World War II.
Those deemed "unfit to reproduce" often included people with mental or physical disabilities, people who scored in the low ranges on different IQ tests, criminals and "deviants," and members of disfavored minority groups.

Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children

WISCWechslerWechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)
The most commonly used individual IQ test series is the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale for adults and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children for school-age test-takers.
The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC), developed by David Wechsler, is an individually administered intelligence test for children between the ages of 6 and 16.

Biological determinism

genetic determinismbiologismbiological determinist
The American eugenics movement was rooted in the biological determinist ideas of the British Scientist Sir Francis Galton.
Other workers such as H. H. Goddard, and Robert Yerkes attempted to measure people's intelligence and to show that the resulting scores were heritable, again to demonstrate the supposed superiority of people with white skin.

Lewis Terman

Lewis M. TermanLewis Madison Terman
American psychologist Lewis Terman at Stanford University revised the Binet-Simon scale, which resulted in the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales (1916).
Early on, Terman adopted William Stern's suggestion that mental age/chronological age times 100 be made the intelligence quotient or IQ.

Das–Naglieri cognitive assessment system

Cognitive Assessment SystemCAS
Other commonly used individual IQ tests (some of which do not label their standard scores as "IQ" scores) include the current versions of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities, the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, the Cognitive Assessment System, and the Differential Ability Scales.
CAS development began with an attempt to offer an alternative to the IQ test (Das, Kirby & Jarman, 1975, 1979 ).

Multidimensional Aptitude Battery II

Multidimensional Aptitude Battery
The Multidimensional Aptitude Battery II is a group-administered intelligence test created by psychologist Douglas N. Jackson which is supposed to measure Verbal, Performance and Full Scale IQ.

Louis Leon Thurstone

ThurstoneLouis ThurstoneL.L. Thurstone
L.L. Thurstone argued for a model of intelligence that included seven unrelated factors (verbal comprehension, word fluency, number facility, spatial visualization, associative memory, perceptual speed, reasoning, and induction).
Thurstone was responsible for the standardized mean and standard deviation of IQ scores used today, as opposed to the Intelligence Test system originally used by Alfred Binet.

The Bell Curve

Bell CurveThe Bell Curve WarsThe Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life
This phenomenon was named the Flynn effect in the book The Bell Curve after James R. Flynn, the author who did the most to bring this phenomenon to the attention of psychologists.
The book's title comes from the bell-shaped normal distribution of intelligence quotient (IQ) scores in a population.

The IQ Controversy, the Media and Public Policy

published in 1988review by Snydermann and RothmanSnyderman and Rothman (study)
In a survey of 661 randomly sampled psychologists and educational researchers, published in 1988, Mark Snyderman and Stanley Rothman reported a general consensus supporting the validity of IQ testing.
Claiming to document liberal bias in media coverage of scientific findings regarding intelligence quotient (IQ), the book builds on a survey of the opinions of hundreds of North American psychologists, sociologists and educationalists conducted by the authors in 1984.

James Flynn (academic)

Jim FlynnJames R. FlynnJames Flynn
This phenomenon was named the Flynn effect in the book The Bell Curve after James R. Flynn, the author who did the most to bring this phenomenon to the attention of psychologists.
An Emeritus Professor of Political Studies at the University of Otago in Dunedin, New Zealand, he is famous for his publications about the continued year-after-year increase of IQ scores throughout the world, which is now referred to as the Flynn effect.

American Psychological Association

APAAmerican Psychology AssociationAmerican Psychological Association (APA)
The general figure for the heritability of IQ, according to an authoritative American Psychological Association report, is 0.45 for children, and rises to around 0.75 for late adolescents and adults.
The APA has task forces that issue policy statements on various matters of social importance, including abortion, human rights, the welfare of detainees, human trafficking, the rights of the mentally ill, IQ testing, sexual orientation change efforts, and gender equality.

Intelligence

intelligenthuman intelligencemental capacity
Unlike, for example, distance and mass, a concrete measure of intelligence cannot be achieved given the abstract nature of the concept of "intelligence".
These values are similar to the accepted variance in IQ explained by g in humans (40–50%).

Mental age

Achievement quotient
Historically, IQ is a score obtained by dividing a person's mental age score, obtained by administering an intelligence test, by the person's chronological age, both expressed in terms of years and months.
Originally, the ratio of the mental age to the chronological age was used to compute the intelligence quotient, or IQ.

David Wechsler

WechslerWechsler scales
David Wechsler produced the first version of his test in 1939.
Wechsler is best known for his intelligence tests.

Working memory training

A study on young adults published in April 2008 by a team from the Universities of Michigan and Bern supports the possibility of the transfer of fluid intelligence from specifically designed working memory training.
Working memory is a central intellectual faculty, linked to IQ, ageing, and mental health.

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale

WAISWAIS-IIIWAIS-IV
The most commonly used individual IQ test series is the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale for adults and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children for school-age test-takers.
The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) is an IQ test designed to measure intelligence and cognitive ability in adults and older adolescents.