Intendant (government official)

intendantIntendente MunicipalIntendenteintendancyintendenciaIntendentintendanciesintendantsintendenciasIntendant General
An intendant (intendant, Portuguese and intendente) was and sometimes still is a usually public official, especially in France, Spain, Portugal, and Latin America.wikipedia
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Ancien Régime

ancien regimeOld RegimeAncien Régime in France
Intendants were royal civil servants in France under the Old Regime.
The creation of intendants—representatives of royal power in the provinces—did much to undermine local control by regional nobles.

Louis Bénigne François Bertier de Sauvigny

Bertier de SauvignyBerthier de SauvignyBerthier de Sauvigny (1737-1789)
They were often young: Charles Alexandre de Calonne became an intendant at the age of 32, Turgot and Louis Bénigne François Berthier de Sauvigny at the age of 34, and Louis-Urbain-Aubert de Tourny at the age of 40.
He held the position of intendant of Paris from 13 September 1776 onwards.

Controller-General of Finances

contrôleur général des financesministerComptroller-General
They were chosen by the Controller-General of Finances who asked the advice of the Secretary of State for War for those who were to be sent in border provinces.
In the period following 1547, the financial administration in France continued to evolve, resulting in 1552 in the creation of "Intendents of Finances" (Intendants des Finances), of which one was to become in 1561 the leading Superintendent of Finances (Surintendant des Finances) with cabinet rank.

Charles Alexandre de Calonne

CalonneVicomte de CalonneCharles-Alexandre de Calonne
They were often young: Charles Alexandre de Calonne became an intendant at the age of 32, Turgot and Louis Bénigne François Berthier de Sauvigny at the age of 34, and Louis-Urbain-Aubert de Tourny at the age of 40.
Born in Douai of an upper-class family, he entered the legal profession and became a lawyer to the general council of Artois, procureur to the parlement of Douai, Master of Requests (France), intendant of Metz (1768) and of Lille (1774).

Conseil d'État (France)

Conseil d'ÉtatCouncil of StateConseil d'Etat
Generally, they were masters of requests in the Conseil des parties.
Officially established in 1557, this was the largest of the King's Councils made up of France's High Chancellor, lords of peerage, Ministers and Secretaries of State, the Comptroller-General, 30 Councillors of State, 80 masters of requests, and the Intendants of Finance.

Anne Robert Jacques Turgot

TurgotAnne-Robert-Jacques TurgotAnne Robert Jacques Turgot, Baron de Laune
They were often young: Charles Alexandre de Calonne became an intendant at the age of 32, Turgot and Louis Bénigne François Berthier de Sauvigny at the age of 34, and Louis-Urbain-Aubert de Tourny at the age of 40.
In 1743 and 1756, he accompanied Gournay, the intendant of commerce, during Gournay's tours of inspection in the provinces.

Claude-François Bertrand de Boucheporn

Bertrand de BouchepornM. de Boucheporn
Claude-François Bertrand Boucheporn (November 4, 1741 – February 20, 1794) was a French magistrate and intendant of the Ancien Régime, born in Metz (Moselle).

Généralité

generalityGénéralité de Parisgeneral councillor of aid
After 1680, Intendants in France had a permanent position in a fixed region (or "généralité"); their official title is intendant de justice, police et finances, commissaire départi dans les généralités du royaume pour l'exécution des ordres du roi.
Initially fiscal, their role steadily increased to become by the late 17th century — under the authority of an intendant (reporting to the Controller-General of Finances) — the very framework of royal administration and centralisation.

Conseiller d'État (France)

conseiller d'ÉtatCouncillor of StateConseiller d'Etat
These agents of the king were recruited from among the masters of requests, the Councillors of State and members of the Parlements or the Court of Accounts.
Ninety percent of the Councillors of State de robe were promoted from among the Masters of Requests, while the rest were chosen from among judges of the prerogative courts; often they had prior experience working as intendants.

House of Bourbon

BourbonBourbonsBourbon dynasty
When France won the War of the Spanish Succession and the House of Bourbon was established on the throne of Spain, the intendancy system was extended to Spain and Portugal and the Spanish Empire and Portuguese Empire.
He established the role of intendants, non-noble men whose arbitrary powers of administration were granted (and revocable) by the monarch, superseding many of the traditional duties and privileges of the noble governors.

Master of Requests (France)

maître des requêtesMaster of Requestsmaîtres des requêtes
Generally, they were masters of requests in the Conseil des parties.
In this way, the Masters of Requests became key to expanding royal power into the provinces and in national unification, a role that would be taken over in the 17th century by royal Intendants who were recruited from among the ranks of the Masters of Requests.

Louis-Urbain-Aubert de Tourny

Aubert Tourny
They were often young: Charles Alexandre de Calonne became an intendant at the age of 32, Turgot and Louis Bénigne François Berthier de Sauvigny at the age of 34, and Louis-Urbain-Aubert de Tourny at the age of 40.
At first maître des requêtes, in 1730 he was made intendant to Limoges.

Metz

Metz, FranceDivodurumBishop of Metz
Metz is the prefecture of the Moselle based in the former Intendant Palace.

Cardinal Richelieu

RichelieuCardinal de RichelieuArmand Jean du Plessis de Richelieu
Under Louis XIII's minister Cardinal Richelieu, with France's entry into the Thirty Years' War in 1635, the Intendants became a permanent institution in France.
To collect taxes more efficiently, and to keep corruption to a minimum, Richelieu bypassed local tax officials, replacing them with intendants (officials in the direct service of the Crown).

Jean Baptiste Antoine Auget de Montyon

Antoine Jean Baptiste Robert Auget Montyon, Baron de MontyonBaron de MontyonBaron Montyon
His father was a maître des comptes; he was educated in law, and became a lawyer at the Châtelet in 1755, maître des requêtes to the Conseil d'État in 1760, and intendant successively of Auvergne, Provence and La Rochelle.

Captaincy General of Venezuela

VenezuelaCaptain General of VenezuelaCaptaincy General
In 1776 Gálvez, now Minister of the Indies, established an intendancy (superintendencia) for all of Venezuela in 1776, and several in the Río de la Plata in 1783.
It established a unified government in political (governorship), military (captaincy general), fiscal (intendancy) and judicial (audiencia) affairs.

Administrative divisions of Chile

administrative division of Chileadministrative divisionadministratively divided
The regional government is headed by the intendant (intendente), appointed by the President of the Republic.

New Spain

Viceroyalty of New SpainSpanishNueva España
That same year Visitador General José de Gálvez created a plan to set up intendancies in New Spain (Mexico). More intendancies were established in Quito, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico (1784), Guatemala, more areas of New Spain, Chile (1786) and Cuenca (1786).
King Charles III introduced reforms in the organization of the viceroyalty in 1786, known as Bourbon reforms, which created the intendencias, which allowed to limit, in some way, the viceroy's attributions.

Viceroy

viceregalvice-regalnamestnik
Initially intendancies were held by a separate person from the viceroy or the governor, but eventually in many places the offices were granted to one person due to conflicts that emerged between these two.
The Bourbon Reforms introduced the new office of the intendant, which was appointed directly by the crown and had broad fiscal and administrative powers in political and military issues.

Regions of Chile

RegionregionsRegion of Chile
Each region is headed by an intendant (intendente), appointed by the President of Chile, and a directly-elected regional board (consejo regional).

Jean Orry

The first intendencias were established in Spain after 1711, during the War of the Spanish Succession on the advice of Jean Orry, who had been sent by Louis XIV of France to help his young grandson Philip V set up his new government.
The Consejos Territoriales were superseded by an intendant directly responsible to Orry.

Viceroyalty of Peru

PeruViceroy of PeruViceroyalty of Perú
More intendancies were established in Quito, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico (1784), Guatemala, more areas of New Spain, Chile (1786) and Cuenca (1786).
Viceroy Teodoro de Croix also decentralized the government through the creation of eight intendencias in the area of the Audiencia of Lima, and two in the Captaincy General of Chile.

Captaincy General of Chile

ChileKingdom of ChileGeneral Captaincy of Chile
More intendancies were established in Quito, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico (1784), Guatemala, more areas of New Spain, Chile (1786) and Cuenca (1786).
Chile gained two intendancies, Santiago and Concepción in 1786 and became a Bourbon-style Captaincy General in 1789.

Spanish East Indies

SpanishPhilippinesSpanish Philippines
More intendancies were established in Quito, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico (1784), Guatemala, more areas of New Spain, Chile (1786) and Cuenca (1786).
An intendencia was established in Manila in 1784 to handle the government finances and to promote the economy.

List of governors in the Viceroyalty of New Spain

18th Governor-Intendant of Sonora (1st time)37th Governor of Guatemalagovernor
In addition to governors, the following list (under construction) intends to give an overview of colonial units of the provincial level; therefore it also includes some offices of similar rank, especially the intendant.