Interaction hypothesis

negotiation of meaning
The Interaction hypothesis is a theory of second-language acquisition which states that the development of language proficiency is promoted by face-to-face interaction and communication.wikipedia
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Second-language acquisition

second language acquisitionsecond language learningforeign language teaching
The Interaction hypothesis is a theory of second-language acquisition which states that the development of language proficiency is promoted by face-to-face interaction and communication.
Subsequent work, such as the interaction hypothesis and the comprehensible output hypothesis, has suggested that opportunities for output and for interaction may also be necessary for learners to reach more advanced levels.

Theories of second-language acquisition

second language acquisitionsecond language acquisition theorytheories
The Interaction hypothesis is a theory of second-language acquisition which states that the development of language proficiency is promoted by face-to-face interaction and communication.
The 1990s saw a host of new theories introduced to the field, such as Michael Long's interaction hypothesis, Merrill Swain's output hypothesis, and Richard Schmidt's noticing hypothesis.

Michael Long (linguist)

Michael LongMichael Long (academic)
The idea existed in the 1980s, but is usually credited to Michael Long for his 1996 paper The role of the linguistic environment in second language acquisition.
Long is also usually credited for introducing the Interaction Hypothesis, a theory of second language acquisition which places importance on face-to-face interaction.

Face-to-face interaction

face-to-faceface-to-face communicationinteraction
The Interaction hypothesis is a theory of second-language acquisition which states that the development of language proficiency is promoted by face-to-face interaction and communication.
What's more, van der Zwaard and Bannink (2014) examined the effect of video call compared with face-to-face communication on the negotiation of meaning between native speakers and non-native speakers of English.

Language proficiency

proficiencyfluentproficient
The Interaction hypothesis is a theory of second-language acquisition which states that the development of language proficiency is promoted by face-to-face interaction and communication.

Communication

communicationsSocial Communicationcommunicate
The Interaction hypothesis is a theory of second-language acquisition which states that the development of language proficiency is promoted by face-to-face interaction and communication.

Stephen Krashen

KrashenDr. Stephen KrashenKrashen, Stephen
Similar to Krashen's input hypothesis, the interaction hypothesis claims that comprehensible input is important for language learning.

Input hypothesis

affective filtercomprehensible inputMonitor Theory
Similar to Krashen's input hypothesis, the interaction hypothesis claims that comprehensible input is important for language learning.

Meaning (linguistics)

meaninglinguistic meaningmeanings
In addition, it claims that the effectiveness of comprehensible input is greatly increased when learners have to negotiate for meaning.

Conversation

discussionbanteraddressee
One of the participants in a conversation will say something that the other does not understand; the participants will then use various communicative strategies to help the interaction progress.

Communication strategies in second-language acquisition

communicative strategiescommunication strategiescommunication strategy
One of the participants in a conversation will say something that the other does not understand; the participants will then use various communicative strategies to help the interaction progress.

Paraphrase

paraphrasingparaphrasticparaphrased
The strategies used when negotiating meaning may include slowing down speech, speaking more deliberately, requests for clarification or repair of speech, or paraphrases.

Evidence of absence

negative evidencedifficult to shownon-existence proof
Interactions often result in learners receiving negative evidence.

Feedback

feedback loopfeedback loopsfeedback control
In doing this, learners can receive feedback on their production and on grammar that they have not yet mastered.

Speech production

vocalizationproductionSpeech
In doing this, learners can receive feedback on their production and on grammar that they have not yet mastered.

Grammar

grammaticalgrammaticallyrules of language
In doing this, learners can receive feedback on their production and on grammar that they have not yet mastered.

Speech perception

perceptionprocessacoustic landmarks and distinctive features
Furthermore, if learners stop to clarify things that they do not understand, they may have more time to process the input they receive.

Attention

concentrationfocusinattention
Finally, interactions may serve as a way of focusing learners' attention on a difference between their knowledge of the target language and the reality of what they are hearing; it may also focus their attention on a part of the target language of which they are not yet aware.

Second language

L2 speakersL2second-language
Finally, interactions may serve as a way of focusing learners' attention on a difference between their knowledge of the target language and the reality of what they are hearing; it may also focus their attention on a part of the target language of which they are not yet aware.

Literature review

reviewsreview articlesliterature reviews
In a survey of the literature on the subject, Larsen-Freeman and Long say that interaction is not necessary for language acquisition; they do say, however, that it helps in certain circumstances.

Diane Larsen-Freeman

Larsen-FreemanLarsen-Freeman, DLarsen-Freeman, Diane
In a survey of the literature on the subject, Larsen-Freeman and Long say that interaction is not necessary for language acquisition; they do say, however, that it helps in certain circumstances.

Rod Ellis

EllisEllis, Rod
In addition, Ellis notes that interaction is not always positive.

Definition

definitionsdefineddefine
According to Ellis, this can happen if interlocutors use lengthy paraphrases or give complex definitions of a word that was not understood, and he comes to the conclusion that the role of interaction in language acquisition is a complex one.

Complex Dynamic Systems Theory

second language developmentDynamic approach to second language developmentcomplex dynamic systems approaches to language
*Dynamic approach to second language development