Interconnection

interconnectinterconnectivityinterconnectedconnectivityinterconnectednesscommunication interfacecomplex interactionsconnectionsinterconnectionsinterface
In telecommunications, interconnection is the physical linking of a carrier's network with equipment or facilities not belonging to that network.wikipedia
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Registered jack

RJ11RJ-11RJ45
Today the standard electrical connector for interconnection in the US, and much of the world, is the registered jack family of standards, especially RJ11.
Registration interfaces were created by the Bell System under a 1976 Federal Communications Commission order for the standard interconnection between telephone company equipment and customer premises equipment.

Hush-A-Phone Corp. v. United States

Hush-A-Phone v. United StatesHush-A-PhoneHush-a-phone Decision
This began to change in the landmark case Hush-A-Phone v. United States [1956], which allowed some non-Bell owned equipment to be connected to the network, and was followed by a number of other cases, regulatory decisions, and legislation that led to the transformation of the American long distance telephone industry from a monopoly to a competitive business.

Customer-premises equipment

customer premises equipmentCPEcustomer premises
With the gradual breakup of the Bell monopoly, starting with Hush-A-Phone v. United States [1956], which allowed some non-Bell owned equipment to be connected to the network (a process called interconnection), equipment on customers' premises became increasingly owned by customers.

Carterfone

Carterfone decisionCarterphoneCarterphone decision
This further changed in FCC's Carterfone decision in 1968, which required the Bell System companies to permit interconnection by radio-telephone operators.

Demarcation point

DemarkDanishDanes
Preceding these rulings, the Bell System Companies held a monopoly and did not allow an interconnection with third party equipment.

Termination rates

termination rateMobile Termination Ratetermination charge
*Interconnection

Telecommunication

telecommunicationscommunicationstelecom
In telecommunications, interconnection is the physical linking of a carrier's network with equipment or facilities not belonging to that network.

Common carrier

carriercommon carrierscommon-carrier
In telecommunications, interconnection is the physical linking of a carrier's network with equipment or facilities not belonging to that network.

Telecommunications network

networkcommunication networkcommunications network
In telecommunications, interconnection is the physical linking of a carrier's network with equipment or facilities not belonging to that network.

United States

AmericanU.S.USA
In United States regulatory law, interconnection is specifically defined (47 C.F.R. 51.5) as "the linking of two or more networks for the mutual exchange of traffic."

Law

legallawslegal theory
In United States regulatory law, interconnection is specifically defined (47 C.F.R. 51.5) as "the linking of two or more networks for the mutual exchange of traffic."

Code of Federal Regulations

CFRC.F.R.federal regulation
In United States regulatory law, interconnection is specifically defined (47 C.F.R. 51.5) as "the linking of two or more networks for the mutual exchange of traffic."

Bell System

Bell Operating CompanyBell Operating CompaniesBell Telephone
Under the Bell System monopoly (post Communications Act of 1934), the Bell System owned the phones and did not allow interconnection, either of separate phones (or other terminal equipment) or of other networks; a popular saying was "Ma Bell has you by the calls".

Communications Act of 1934

Federal Communications ActCommunications Act1934 Communications Act
Under the Bell System monopoly (post Communications Act of 1934), the Bell System owned the phones and did not allow interconnection, either of separate phones (or other terminal equipment) or of other networks; a popular saying was "Ma Bell has you by the calls".

Terminal equipment

terminus
Under the Bell System monopoly (post Communications Act of 1934), the Bell System owned the phones and did not allow interconnection, either of separate phones (or other terminal equipment) or of other networks; a popular saying was "Ma Bell has you by the calls".

Long-distance calling

long distancelong-distancelong distance call
This began to change in the landmark case Hush-A-Phone v. United States [1956], which allowed some non-Bell owned equipment to be connected to the network, and was followed by a number of other cases, regulatory decisions, and legislation that led to the transformation of the American long distance telephone industry from a monopoly to a competitive business.

Telephone

phonetelephonesLocal Telephone Service
This began to change in the landmark case Hush-A-Phone v. United States [1956], which allowed some non-Bell owned equipment to be connected to the network, and was followed by a number of other cases, regulatory decisions, and legislation that led to the transformation of the American long distance telephone industry from a monopoly to a competitive business.

Monopoly

monopoliesmonopolisticmonopolist
This began to change in the landmark case Hush-A-Phone v. United States [1956], which allowed some non-Bell owned equipment to be connected to the network, and was followed by a number of other cases, regulatory decisions, and legislation that led to the transformation of the American long distance telephone industry from a monopoly to a competitive business.

Federal Communications Commission

FCCU.S. Federal Communications CommissionFederal Communications Commission (FCC)
This further changed in FCC's Carterfone decision in 1968, which required the Bell System companies to permit interconnection by radio-telephone operators.

De facto standard

de facto'' standardde factode facto'' standards
Since then, it has gained popularity worldwide, and is a de facto international standard.

Cascading failure

cascade failurecascadeaccident cascade
A cascading failure is a process in a system of interconnected parts in which the failure of one or few parts can trigger the failure of other parts and so on.

Italia 1

Italia1Italia UnoAntenna Nord
Launched 3 January 1982 by print media editor Edilio Rusconi, Italia 1 was born from the idea of a network supported by twenty regional broadcasting stations, some owned by Rusconi himself and others simply affiliated to broadcast throughout Italian territory on the 'ploy' of interconnection.

Complex systems biology

Complex system biologycomplex systems
Complex systems biology (CSB) is a branch or subfield of mathematical and theoretical biology concerned with complexity of both structure and function in biological organisms, as well as the emergence and evolution of organisms and species, with emphasis being placed on the complex interactions of, and within, bionetworks, and on the fundamental relations and relational patterns that are essential to life.

Interaction

interactionsinteractinteracting
A closely related term is interconnectivity, which deals with the interactions of interactions within systems: combinations of many simple interactions can lead to surprising emergent phenomena.