Intermodal passenger transport

A bus stop inside London (Heathrow) Airport, England.
Two bicycles on the rack of the Los Angeles Metro bus
Woodside Ferry Terminal, Birkenhead Heritage Tramway and Woodside bus station
Park and ride at Schofields railway station, Australia
Chicago's Jefferson Park Transit Center is an intermodal hub for bus and train commuters.
A Parkiteer bicycle parking station at Sunshine railway station, Melbourne in Australia
Public bicycles at Euston train and bus station
Frankfurt Airport long-distance station

Intermodal passenger transport, also called mixed-mode commuting, involves using two or more modes of transportation in a journey.

- Intermodal passenger transport

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Folding bicycle

Bicycle designed to fold into a compact form, facilitating transport and storage.

1982 Hon Convertible folding bicycle
30th Anniversary Special Edition Dahon folding bike
Italian Bersaglieri during World War I with folding bicycles strapped to their backs. 1917.
Overlaid photos of two KHS bicycles, one a F20 20" wheel folding bicycle and the other a Flite 100 700c wheel racing bike, showing similarities in the geometry and riding position.
An example of a full-size folding bike from Montague, with 700c wheels.
Dahon EEZZ, a vertical folding bike.
The Tern Verge X10 is an example of a half-fold bike.
1960s European folding bicycle, showing hinged frame and quick release handlebar stem allowing the bars to turn parallel to the frame when folded.
Honda Step Compo

When folded, the bikes can be more easily carried into buildings, on public transportation (facilitating mixed-mode commuting and bicycle commuting), and more easily stored in compact living quarters or aboard a car, boat or plane.

Hoboken Terminal

Hoboken Terminal under construction, 1907
Hoboken Terminal c. 1954
An Erie Lackawanna commuter train arriving at Hoboken in November 1978
The Phoebe Snow at Hoboken Terminal in September 1965
New clock tower
At Warrington Plaza
Hoboken Terminal viewed from the northeast, with Jersey City skyline in the background
Ferry slips before restoration as seen from the Hudson River
Hoboken Terminal from the water on an autumn afternoon in 1996
Clock tower being replaced as part of extensive renovations
Hoboken Terminal from the water, 2013
Ferry terminal in use between 1989 and 2011 for Brookfield Place-bound boats
Hudson Place street stair to PATH
NJ Transit commuter rail platforms
Commuter rail platform area
One of two fare control areas of the PATH station
Hoboken Terminal after a heavy snow storm in 2010
Looking west in Hoboken Terminal waiting room
Ice Water faucet inside the main terminal

Hoboken Terminal is a commuter-oriented intermodal passenger station in Hoboken, Hudson County, New Jersey, United States.

South Station

Largest railroad station and intercity bus terminal in Greater Boston and New England's second-largest transportation center after Logan International Airport.

Unused tracks in 1970, prior to the renovation
South Station Tower construction in 2021
The never-used lower-level loop platforms
The Boston Terminal Company 1897 commemorative plaque in South Station. The names on it are:
 * Josiah Quincy, Mayor of Boston
 * The Boston Terminal Company: Samuel Hoar, Royal Chapin Taft, Charles Peter Clark, Charles Loughead Lovering, Francis Lee Higginson; trustees
 * George B. Francis; resident engineer
 * Norcross Brothers; builders
 * Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge; architects
 * Fayette Samuel Curtis, Walter Shepard, Lawson Bennett Bidwell; consulting engineers
Wide view of the concourse in 2020
South Station at evening rush hour, Monday, February 11, 2013 after the February 2013 nor'easter

Today, it serves as a major intermodal domestic transportation hub, with service to the Greater Boston region and the Midwestern and Northeastern United States.

Traffic congestion

Condition in transport that is characterized by slower speeds, longer trip times, and increased vehicular queueing.

Heavy traffic jam in Garden Ring, Moscow
Traffic jam in Los Angeles, 1953
Traffic jam on the Rohtang Pass between Manali and Spiti
This percentage split shows the main causes of traffic congestion. The most common cause is bottlenecking (encircled).
Traffic jam - traffic on the Cairo-Assiut highway is blocked due to fog
Traffic congestion on Marginal Pinheiros, near downtown São Paulo. According to Time magazine, São Paulo has the world's worst traffic jams. Drivers are informed through variable message signs that display the prevailing queue length.
Congestion on a street in Taipei consisting primarily of motorcycles
India's economic growth has resulted in a massive increase in the number of private vehicles on its roads overwhelming the transport infrastructure. Shown here is a traffic jam in Delhi.
Rapid economic growth in China has resulted in a massive increase in the number of private vehicles in its major cities. Shown here is a traffic jam in downtown Haikou, Hainan Province, China.
Costs of Congestion and Parking Search
The houses in this street in Royal Tunbridge Wells was built when car ownership was exceptional and so there was no provision for garages or even off-street parking. As such, the streets are full of parked cars (on-street parking) and form an artificial choke point, increasing the likelihood of traffic congestion.
Metered ramp on I-894 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, U.S. The queue of cars waiting at the red light can be seen on the upper portion of the picture.
The A38M Aston Expressway in Aston, towards central Birmingham - the lanes are controlled via the overhead gantries, which reverse the flow of one lane (making 4 in one direction, 2 in the other and a central buffer lane) during peak times accordingly.
The HOV lanes in Highway 404 in Southern Ontario are separated by a stripped buffer zone that breaks occasionally to allow vehicles to enter and exit the HOV lane.
Widening works under way on the M25 motorway surrounding London, England to increase the number of lanes
During rush hour, right turns onto the side street shown here are prohibited in order to prevent rat running.
Bike lane constructed in areas of low space to encourage use of human-sized transportation
Traffic congestion detector in Germany
Different modes of transport require different amounts of road space
Traffic jam in Warringah Freeway
Traffic jam in Dhaka
Typical traffic jam in São Paulo downtown, despite road space rationing by plate number. Rua da Consolação, São Paulo, Brazil
Highway 401 in Ontario, which passes through Toronto, suffers chronic traffic congestion despite its width of up to 18 lanes.
Traffic jam in Beijing
Traffic jam in New Delhi
Traffic congestion in Bandung, West Java
Busy traffic in Auckland
Traffic congestion on Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (EDSA)
Traffic jam at EDSA-Tramo in Pasay, Metro Manila
Traffic congestion in Istanbul
Congestion on A64 road which heading towards to York
A solution to traffic congestion using Northern Ireland Railways from Moira to Belfast Great Victoria Street
On Fridays in California, Interstate 5 is often congested as Los Angeles residents travel north for the weekend.
Rush hour traffic in Interstate 95 in Miami
Congestion during lunch hour on U.S. Route 11E in Morristown, Tennessee

Incentives to use public transport, increasing modal shares. This can be achieved through infrastructure investment, subsidies, transport integration, pricing strategies that decrease the marginal cost/fixed cost ratios, improved timetabling and greater priority for buses to reduce journey time e.g. bus lanes or bus rapid transit.

Bicycle parking station

Building or structure designed for use as a bicycle parking facility.

Complex: Utrecht Centraal's bicycle parking facility is the largest in the world.
Simple: A Parkiteer e-card-accessible bike cage at Wyndham Vale station, Melbourne, Australia.
A lockable bike cage in Templin, Germany
A lockable bike box in Angermünde, Germany
Radstation at Münster railway station, Germany.
Interior of Radstation in Münster, Germany.
Underground bicycle parking next to Groningen railway station.

Some are based at railway stations to facilitate "bike and ride" multi-modal transport, while others are situated at the end of the commute and as such are located in town or city centres, universities, and workplaces.

Bicycle parking

Bicycle parking typically requires a degree of security to prevent theft.

Bicycle parking station. Alewife rapid transit station in Massachusetts.
Hap-hazard bike parking gone wild. Without organized parking facilities, bike parking can easily become a problem in densely populated areas.
The space needed to park a single automobile can accommodate nearly a dozen bicycles (Car Bike Port by Cyclehoop).
Multi-storey parking facility
Bike parking house at the shopping mall
Integrating bicycles with other modes of transportation
Bike racks on trains
Bike parking shelters
Automated underground bicycle storage system (Biceberg in Zaragoza, Spain)<ref>{{cite web |url= |title=Gallery of photographies | |year=2005 |access-date=18 April 2012}}</ref>
Car parking meter with integrated bicycle lock ring (Montreal, Canada)
Multi-level bike racks and storage facilities
Bike racks with a decorative value
Temporary, moveable bike rack in heavy concrete
Fastened steel poles
Up-side down parking saves space
Bicycle shelters with locks
Opportunistic parking

Many mass transit stations include bicycle parking in the form of bike racks or purpose-built bicycle parking stations to facilitate mixed-mode commuting.


Passenger railroad service that provides medium and long-distance inter-city rail service in the contiguous United States and to nine cities in Canada.

The Pennsylvania Railroad's Congressional in the 1960s
Classic Amtrak logo displayed at the Oakland – Jack London Square station, California
An Amtrak EMD SDP40F with the San Francisco Zephyr in 1975. By the mid-1970s Amtrak equipment was acquiring its own identity.
Amtrak's Phase 1 Arrow Logo at New Iberia Station
Entrance to New York City's Penn Station, Amtrak's busiest station by boardings
30th Street Station in Philadelphia, Amtrak's third busiest train station in the nation, July 2016
Annual ridership by fiscal year 1971–2021
A Viewliner II baggage car at New London in 2016
William Graham Claytor Jr, president 1982–93
Amtrak's Piedmont near Charlotte, North Carolina, with a state-owned locomotive. This route is run under a partnership with the North Carolina Department of Transportation, 2003
Amtrak Cascades service with tilting Talgo trainsets in Seattle, Washington, 2006
Aerial view of the 1987 Maryland train collision

Intermodal connections between Amtrak trains and other transportation are available at many stations.


Human-powered or motor-powered assisted, pedal-driven, single-track vehicle, having two wheels attached to a frame, one behind the other.

The most popular bicycle model—and most popular vehicle of any kind in the world—is the Chinese Flying Pigeon, with about 500 million produced.
Wooden draisine (around 1820), the first two-wheeler and as such the archetype of the bicycle
Michaux's son on a velocipede 1868
1886 Rover safety bicycle at the British Motor Museum. The first modern bicycle, it featured a rear-wheel-drive, chain-driven cycle with two similar-sized wheels. Dunlop's pneumatic tire was added to the bicycle in 1888.
John Boyd Dunlop on a bicycle c. 1915
Cyclists' Touring Club sign on display at the National Museum of Scotland
Firefighter bicycle
A man riding an electric bicycle
A cyclist leaning in a turn
A recumbent bicycle
Balance bicycle for young children
Diagram of a bicycle
A Triumph with a step-through frame
A carbon fiber Trek Y-Foil from the late 1990s
A bicycle with shaft drive instead of a chain
A set of rear sprockets (also known as a cassette) and a derailleur
Hub gear
Bicycle grips made of leather. Anatomic shape distributes weight over palm area to prevent Cyclist's palsy (Ulnar syndrome)
A Selle San Marco saddle designed for women
Linear-pull brake, also known by the Shimano trademark: V-Brake, on rear wheel of a mountain bike
A front disc brake, mounted to the fork and hub
Touring bicycle equipped with front and rear racks, fenders (called mud-guards), water bottles in cages, four panniers and a handlebar bag
Puncture repair kit with tire levers, sandpaper to clean off an area of the inner tube around the puncture, a tube of rubber solution (vulcanizing fluid), round and oval patches, a metal grater and piece of chalk to make chalk powder (to dust over excess rubber solution). Kits often also include a wax crayon to mark the puncture location.
Urban cyclists in Copenhagen in Denmark at a traffic light
Men in Uganda using a bicycle to transport bananas
"Let go – but stand by"; Frances Willard learning to ride a bicycle.
Columbia Bicycles advertisement from 1886
A man uses a bicycle to carry goods in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
Bicycles in Utrecht, Netherlands
A bicycle wheel remains chained in a bike rack after the rest of the bicycle has been stolen at east campus of Duke University in Durham, North Carolina.
Women on bicycles on unpaved road, USA, late 19th century
A penny-farthing or ordinary bicycle photographed in the Škoda Auto museum in the Czech Republic
The Svea Velocipede by Fredrik Ljungström and Birger Ljungström, exhibited at the Swedish National Museum of Science and Technology
Bicycle in Plymouth, England at the start of the 20th century
Man with a bicycle in Glengarry County, Ontario between 1895 and 1910
The first bicycle
Drawing from an 1896 newspaper of The London Hansom Cycle

In cities where bicycles are not integrated into the public transportation system, commuters often use bicycles as elements of a mixed-mode commute, where the bike is used to travel to and from train stations or other forms of rapid transit.

Journey planner

Specialized search engine used to find an optimal means of travelling between two or more given locations, sometimes using more than one transport mode.

Screenshot of SORTA's OpenTripPlanner journey planning application with highlighted route by transit

An intermodal journey planner supports intermodal journeys i.e. using more than one modes of transport, such as cycling, rapid transit, bus, ferry, etc. Many route planners support door-to-door planning while others only work between stops on the transport network, such as stations, airports or bus stops.

Bicycle commuting

Use of a bicycle to travel from home to a place of work or study &mdash; in contrast to the use of a bicycle for sport, recreation or touring.

Ringstraße, Vienna, Austria, 2005
Amsterdam commuting

Mixed-mode commuting combines the use of a bicycle with public transportation for commuting.