# International Congress of Mathematicians

**ICMInternational Mathematical CongressInternational Congresses of MathematiciansInternational Congress of MathematicsInternational Congress International Congresses of Mathematicians25th International Congress of MathematicianscongressICM 2018ICM1986**

The International Congress of Mathematicians (ICM) is the largest conference for the topic of mathematics.wikipedia

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### Fields Medal

**Fields MedalistFields Prize in MathematicsFields Medalists**

The Fields Medals, the Nevanlinna Prize, the Gauss Prize, and the Chern Medal are awarded during the congress's opening ceremony. The 1924 congress in Toronto was organized by John Charles Fields, initiator of the Fields Medal; it included a roundtrip railway excursion to Vancouver and ferry to Victoria.

The Fields Medal is a prize awarded to two, three, or four mathematicians under 40 years of age at the International Congress of the International Mathematical Union (IMU), a meeting that takes place every four years.

### International Mathematical Union

**IMUIMU, International Mathematical UnionInternational Mathematical Union (IMU)**

It meets once every four years, hosted by the International Mathematical Union (IMU).

It is a member of the International Science Council (ISC) and supports the International Congress of Mathematicians.

### Nevanlinna Prize

**Rolf Nevanlinna Prize**

The Fields Medals, the Nevanlinna Prize, the Gauss Prize, and the Chern Medal are awarded during the congress's opening ceremony.

The Rolf Nevanlinna Prize, known from 2022 as the IMU Abacus Medal, is awarded once every four years at the International Congress of Mathematicians, for outstanding contributions in Mathematical Aspects of Information Sciences including:

### List of International Congresses of Mathematicians Plenary and Invited Speakers

**invited speaker at the International Congress of Mathematiciansinvited speakerinvited talk at the International Congress of Mathematicians**

Being invited to talk at the ICM has been called "the equivalent [...] of an induction to a hall of fame."

This is a list of International Congresses of Mathematicians Plenary and Invited Speakers.

### Chern Medal

**Chern PrizeChern Medal AwardChern Medal Foundation**

The Fields Medals, the Nevanlinna Prize, the Gauss Prize, and the Chern Medal are awarded during the congress's opening ceremony.

The prize is given at the International Congress of Mathematicians (ICM), which is held every four years.

### Hilbert's problems

**Hilbert problems23 problems23 unsolved problems**

During the 1900 congress in Paris, France, David Hilbert announced his famous list of 23 unsolved mathematical problems, now termed Hilbert's problems.

Hilbert presented ten of the problems (1, 2, 6, 7, 8, 13, 16, 19, 21, and 22) at the Paris conference of the International Congress of Mathematicians, speaking on August 8 in the Sorbonne.

### Charlotte Wedell

**Wedell, Charlotte**

The congress was attended by 208 mathematicians from 16 countries, including 12 from Russia and 7 from the U.S.A. Only four were women (none of them speakers): Iginia Massarini, Vera von Schiff, Charlotte Scott, and Charlotte Wedell.

Charlotte Bolette Sophie, Baroness Wedell-Wedellsborg (27 January 1862 – 22 July 1953) was one of four women mathematicians to attend the inaugural International Congress of Mathematicians, held in Zurich in 1897.

### Georg Cantor

**CantorCantor, Georgavoids the paradoxes**

Felix Klein and Georg Cantor are credited with putting forward the idea of an international congress of mathematicians in the 1890s.

Georg Cantor was also instrumental in the establishment of the first International Congress of Mathematicians, which was held in Zürich, Switzerland, in 1897.

### Landau's problems

**Landau's fourth problemLandau's conjectures**

During the 1912 congress in Cambridge, England, Edmund Landau listed four basic problems about prime numbers, now called Landau's problems.

### Carl Friedrich Gauss Prize

**Gauss Prize**

The Fields Medals, the Nevanlinna Prize, the Gauss Prize, and the Chern Medal are awarded during the congress's opening ceremony.

With its premiere in 2006, it is to be awarded every fourth year, at the International Congress of Mathematicians.

### Continuum hypothesis

**generalized continuum hypothesisGCHHilbert's first problem**

At the 1904 ICM Gyula Kőnig delivered a lecture where he claimed that Cantor's famous continuum hypothesis was false.

It became the first on David Hilbert's list of important open questions that was presented at the International Congress of Mathematicians in the year 1900 in Paris.

### Felix Klein

**KleinFelix Christian KleinC. Felix Klein**

Felix Klein and Georg Cantor are credited with putting forward the idea of an international congress of mathematicians in the 1890s.

During 1908, Klein was elected president of the International Commission on Mathematical Instruction at the Rome International Congress of Mathematicians.

### Emmy Noether

**NoetherAmalie "Emmy" NoetherE. Noether**

The first woman to give an ICM plenary lecture, at the 1932 congress in Zürich, was Emmy Noether.

By the time of her plenary address at the 1932 International Congress of Mathematicians in Zürich, her algebraic acumen was recognized around the world.

### David Hilbert

**HilbertHilbert, DavidD. Hilbert**

During the 1900 congress in Paris, France, David Hilbert announced his famous list of 23 unsolved mathematical problems, now termed Hilbert's problems.

Hilbert put forth a most influential list of 23 unsolved problems at the International Congress of Mathematicians in Paris in 1900.

### Ernst Zermelo

**ZermeloErnst-ZermeloZC**

An error in Kőnig's proof was discovered by Ernst Zermelo soon thereafter.

In 1900, in the Paris conference of the International Congress of Mathematicians, David Hilbert challenged the mathematical community with his famous Hilbert's problems, a list of 23 unsolved fundamental questions which mathematicians should attack during the coming century.

### Hermann Weyl

**WeylH. WeylHermann Klaus Hugo Weyl**

At the opening of the 1932 ICM in Zürich, Hermann Weyl said: "We attend here to an extraordinary improbable event. For the number of n, corresponding to the just opened International Congress of Mathematicians, we have the inequality 7 ≤ n ≤ 9; unfortunately our axiomatic foundations are not sufficient to give a more precise statement”. As a consequence of this controversy, from the 1932 Zürich congress onward, the ICMs are not numbered.

Weyl was a Plenary Speaker of the International Congress of Mathematicians (ICM) in 1928 at Bologna and an Invited Speaker of the ICM in 1936 at Oslo.

### Gyula Kőnig

**Julius KönigGyula KönigJulius König Prize**

At the 1904 ICM Gyula Kőnig delivered a lecture where he claimed that Cantor's famous continuum hypothesis was false.

In 1904, at the third International Congress of Mathematicians at Heidelberg, Kőnig gave a talk to disprove Cantor's continuum hypothesis.

### Charlotte Scott

**Charlotte Angas ScottScottScott, Charlotte**

The congress was attended by 208 mathematicians from 16 countries, including 12 from Russia and 7 from the U.S.A. Only four were women (none of them speakers): Iginia Massarini, Vera von Schiff, Charlotte Scott, and Charlotte Wedell.

She was one of only four women to attend the inaugural International Congress of Mathematicians in Zurich in 1897; the other three were Iginia Massarini, Vera von Schiff, and Charlotte Wedell.

### Andrey Kolmogorov

**KolmogorovAndrei KolmogorovA. N. Kolmogorov**

Andrey Kolmogorov had been appointed to the Fields Medal selection committee for the 1950 congress, but did not participate in the committee's work.

In classical mechanics, he is best known for the Kolmogorov–Arnold–Moser theorem, first presented in 1954 at the International Congress of Mathematicians.

### Laurent Schwartz

**L. SchwarzLaurent-Moïse SchwartzSchwartz**

For the 1950 ICM in Cambridge, Massachusetts, Laurent Schwartz, one of the Fields Medalists for that year, and Jacques Hadamard, both of whom were viewed by the U.S. authorities as communist sympathizers, were only able to obtain U.S. visas after the personal intervention of President Harry Truman.

In 1950 at the ICM, Schwartz was a plenary speaker and was awarded the Fields medal for his work on distributions.

### John Charles Fields

**Fields, John CharlesJ. C. Fields**

The 1924 congress in Toronto was organized by John Charles Fields, initiator of the Fields Medal; it included a roundtrip railway excursion to Vancouver and ferry to Victoria.

His efforts, however, were pivotal in making Toronto the location of the 1924 International Congress of Mathematicians (ICM).

### Karen Uhlenbeck

**Karen K. UhlenbeckUhlenbeck, Karen**

The second ICM plenary talk by a woman was delivered 58 years later, at the 1990 ICM in Kyoto, by Karen Uhlenbeck.

In 1990, she was a plenary speaker at the International Congress of Mathematicians, as only the second woman (after Emmy Noether) to give such a lecture.

### World's Columbian Exposition

**Chicago World's FairColumbian ExpositionWorld Columbian Exposition**

### Mathematics

**mathematicalmathmathematician**

The International Congress of Mathematicians (ICM) is the largest conference for the topic of mathematics.

### Proceedings

**conference proceedingsproceedingconference proceeding**

Each congress is memorialized by a printed set of Proceedings recording academic papers based on invited talks intended to be relevant to current topics of general interest.