International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

ICCPRInternational Covenant of Civil and Political RightsInternational Convention on Civil and Political RightsInternational Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)(ICPPR)Convention on Civil and Political RightsCovenantCovenant on Civil and Political Rightscovenants on political, civilInternational Covenant
The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) is a multilateral treaty adopted by the United Nations General Assembly.wikipedia
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International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

ICESCRInternational Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural RightsEconomic, Social and Cultural Rights
The ICCPR is part of the International Bill of Human Rights, along with the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR).
The ICESCR (and its [[Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights|Optional Protocol]]) is part of the International Bill of Human Rights, along with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), including the latter's [[First Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights|first]] and [[Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights|second]] Optional Protocols.

State of emergency

state of siegenational emergencyemergency powers
The rights can only be limited "in time of public emergency which threatens the life of the nation," and even then no derogation is permitted from the rights to life, freedom from torture and slavery, the freedom from retrospective law, the right to personhood, and freedom of thought, conscience and religion.
All rights that can be derogated from are listed in the International Covenant for Civil and Political Rights.

United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories

non-self-governing territoryNon-Self-Governing Territorieslist of non-self-governing territories
The States Parties to the present Covenant, including those having responsibility for the administration of Non-Self-Governing and Trust Territories, shall promote the realization of the right of self-determination, and shall respect that right, in conformity with the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations.

United Nations Human Rights Committee

Human Rights CommitteeUN Human Rights CommitteeYuji Iwasawa
The ICCPR is monitored by the United Nations Human Rights Committee (a separate body to the United Nations Human Rights Council), which reviews regular reports of States parties on how the rights are being implemented.
The United Nations Human Rights Committee is a United Nations body of 18 experts established by a human rights treaty, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR).

Freedom of assembly

assemblyassemblefree assembly
The covenant commits its parties to respect the civil and political rights of individuals, including the right to life, freedom of religion, freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, electoral rights and rights to due process and a fair trial. Article 21 mandates freedom of assembly and 22 mandates freedom of association.

Incitement

incitingincitefomenting
*The Article 20 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights requires that any advocacy of national, racial or religious hatred that constitutes incitement to discrimination, hostility or violence shall be prohibited by law.

United Nations Convention against Torture

Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or PunishmentConvention Against TortureCommittee Against Torture
The article is now interpreted to impose similar obligations to those required by the United Nations Convention Against Torture, including not just prohibition of torture, but active measures to prevent its use and a prohibition on refoulement.
The Covenant follows the structure of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), with a preamble and 33 articles, divided into three parts:

Freedom of thought

freedom of conscienceliberty of conscienceconscience
The rights can only be limited "in time of public emergency which threatens the life of the nation," and even then no derogation is permitted from the rights to life, freedom from torture and slavery, the freedom from retrospective law, the right to personhood, and freedom of thought, conscience and religion.
In the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), which is legally binding on member states of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), "freedom of thought" is listed under Article 18:

Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, aiming at the abolition of the death penaltySecond Optional Protocolsecond
The [[Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights|Second Optional Protocol]] commits its signatories to the abolition of the death penalty within their borders.
The Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, aiming at the abolition of the death penalty is a side agreement to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.

Double jeopardy

Jeopardya second trialalready been tried
It establishes the Presumption of innocence and forbids double jeopardy.
The 72 signatories and 166 parties to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights recognise, under Article 14 (7): "No one shall be liable to be tried or punished again for an offence for which he has already been finally convicted or acquitted in accordance with the law and penal procedure of each country."

Treaty

treatiesinternational treatyinternational treaties
The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) is a multilateral treaty adopted by the United Nations General Assembly.

Right to a fair trial

fair trialright to fair trialrights of fair and regular trial
The rest of the article imposes specific and detailed obligations around the process of criminal trials in order to protect the rights of the accused and the right to a fair trial.
Some years after the UDHR was adopted, the right to a fair trial was defined in more detail in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR).

Right of return

right to returnlaw of returnreturn
The article also recognises a right of people to enter their own country; the right of return.
The right is formulated in several modern treaties and conventions, most notably in the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the 1966 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the 1948 Fourth Geneva Convention.

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Universal Declaration on Human RightsUnited Nations Universal Declaration of Human RightsThe Universal Declaration of Human Rights
The ICCPR is part of the International Bill of Human Rights, along with the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR).
(It was not until 1976 that the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights came into force, giving a legal status to most of the Declaration.)

International Bill of Human Rights

International Bill of RightsInternational Covenants on Human Rightsassociated covenants
The ICCPR is part of the International Bill of Human Rights, along with the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR).
It consists of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (adopted in 1948), the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR, 1966) with its two Optional Protocols and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR, 1966).

First Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

First Optional Protocolfirst
The [[First Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights|First Optional Protocol]] establishes an individual complaints mechanism, allowing individuals to complain to the Human Rights Committee about violations of the Covenant.
]]The First Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights is an international treaty establishing an individual complaint mechanism for the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR).

Freedom of speech

free speechfreedom of expressionfree expression
The covenant commits its parties to respect the civil and political rights of individuals, including the right to life, freedom of religion, freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, electoral rights and rights to due process and a fair trial.
Freedom of expression is recognized as a human right under article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and recognized in international human rights law in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR).

Cruel and unusual punishment

cruel and unusual punishmentscruel and unusualcruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment
Article 7 prohibits torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading punishment.
The right under a different formulation is also found in Article 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights (1950) and in Article 7 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966).

Linguistic rights

language rightslinguistic human rightslanguage
Article 27 mandates the rights of ethnic, religious and linguistic minority to enjoy their own culture, to profess their own religion, and to use their own language.
Important documents for linguistic rights include the Universal Declaration of Linguistic Rights (1996), the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (1992), the Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) and the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities (1988), as well as Convention against Discrimination in Education and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966).

Self-determination

self determinationright to self-determinationnational self-determination
The States Parties to the present Covenant, including those having responsibility for the administration of Non-Self-Governing and Trust Territories, shall promote the realization of the right of self-determination, and shall respect that right, in conformity with the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations.

Freedom of association

associationright of associationfree association
Article 21 mandates freedom of assembly and 22 mandates freedom of association.
Freedom of Association is both an individual right and a collective right, guaranteed by all modern and democratic legal systems, including the United States Bill of Rights, article 11 of the European Convention on Human Rights, the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, and international law, including articles 20 and 23 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and article 22 of International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.

Torture

torturedtorturingtorture device
The rights can only be limited "in time of public emergency which threatens the life of the nation," and even then no derogation is permitted from the rights to life, freedom from torture and slavery, the freedom from retrospective law, the right to personhood, and freedom of thought, conscience and religion. Article 7 prohibits torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading punishment.
Torture still occurs in a small number of liberal democracies despite several international treaties such as the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the UN Convention Against Torture making torture illegal.

Ex post facto law

ex post factoretroactiveretroactively
The rights can only be limited "in time of public emergency which threatens the life of the nation," and even then no derogation is permitted from the rights to life, freedom from torture and slavery, the freedom from retrospective law, the right to personhood, and freedom of thought, conscience and religion.
The New Zealand Bill of Rights Act 1990 also affirms New Zealand's commitment to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and Universal Declaration of Human Rights, with section 26 preventing the application of retroactive penalties.

Civil and political rights

civil rightscivil rights activistpolitical rights
The covenant commits its parties to respect the civil and political rights of individuals, including the right to life, freedom of religion, freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, electoral rights and rights to due process and a fair trial.
They are also defined in international human rights instruments, such as the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the 1967 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.

Freedom of movement

free movementright to travelmovement
Article 12 guarantees freedom of movement, including the right of persons to choose their residence, to leave and return to a country.