International Phonetic Alphabetwikipedia
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
IPAPronunciationdiacriticInternational Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)IPA:international phonetic alphabetphonetic alphabet IPA [ˈlaŋgˌfɛðgaˌtʰal[maláwi

Phonetic transcription

phonetic transcriptionphonetic alphabetbroad transcription
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
The most common type of phonetic transcription uses a phonetic alphabet, such as the International Phonetic Alphabet.

History of the International Phonetic Alphabet

1993 IPA chartH1928 revisionKiel Convention
After revisions and expansions from the 1890s to the 1940s, the IPA remained primarily unchanged until the Kiel Convention in 1989.
The International Phonetic Alphabet was created soon after the International Phonetic Association was established in the late 19th century.

Extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet

extensions to the IPAextensions to the International Phonetic AlphabetextIPA
To represent additional qualities of speech, such as tooth gnashing, lisping, and sounds made with a cleft lip and cleft palate, an extended set of symbols, the extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet, may be used.
The extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet, also extIPA symbols for disordered speech or simply extIPA, are a set of letters and diacritics devised by the International Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics Association to augment the International Phonetic Alphabet for the phonetic transcription of disordered speech.

Mid central vowel

mid central voweləmid central unrounded vowel
A minor revision took place in 1993 with the addition of four letters for mid central vowels and the removal of letters for voiceless implosives.
The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is, a [[ə|rotated lowercase letter e]].

Phoneme

phonemephonemicphonemes
The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are part of oral language: phones, phonemes, intonation and the separation of words and syllables.
The symbols used for particular phonemes are often taken from the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), the same set of symbols that are most commonly used for phones.

Latin script

LatinLatin alphabetRoman
For this reason, most letters are either Latin or Greek, or modifications thereof.
The Latin script is the basis of the International Phonetic Alphabet, and the 26 most widespread letters are the letters contained in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

Glottal stop

glottal stopʔglottal stops
Some letters are neither: for example, the letter denoting the glottal stop, has the form of a dotless question mark, and derives originally from an apostrophe.
The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is.

Intonation (linguistics)

intonationintonationalintonations
The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are part of oral language: phones, phonemes, intonation and the separation of words and syllables. Among the symbols of the IPA, 107 letters represent consonants and vowels, 31 diacritics are used to modify these, and 19 additional signs indicate suprasegmental qualities such as length, tone, stress, and intonation.
However, for general purposes the International Phonetic Alphabet offers the two intonation marks shown in the box at the head of this article.

Consonant

consonantconsonantsC
Among the symbols of the IPA, 107 letters represent consonants and vowels, 31 diacritics are used to modify these, and 19 additional signs indicate suprasegmental qualities such as length, tone, stress, and intonation.
Since the number of possible sounds in all of the world's languages is much greater than the number of letters in any one alphabet, linguists have devised systems such as the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) to assign a unique and unambiguous symbol to each attested consonant.

Latin alphabet

LatinRomanLatin script
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
More recently, linguists have also tended to prefer the Latin script or the International Phonetic Alphabet (itself largely based on the Latin script) when transcribing or creating written standards for non-European languages, such as the African reference alphabet.

Implosive consonant

implosiveimplosivesimplosive consonant
A minor revision took place in 1993 with the addition of four letters for mid central vowels and the removal of letters for voiceless implosives.
In the International Phonetic Alphabet, implosives are indicated by modifying the top of a letter (voiced stop) with a rightward-facing hook, for example:.

Click consonant

click consonantclicksclick
For example, before 1989, the IPA letters for click consonants were,,, and, all of which were derived either from existing IPA letters, or from Latin and Greek letters.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents a click by placing the assigned symbol for the place of click articulation adjacent to a symbol for a non-click sound at the rear place of articulation.

Vowel

vowelvowelsvowel height
Among the symbols of the IPA, 107 letters represent consonants and vowels, 31 diacritics are used to modify these, and 19 additional signs indicate suprasegmental qualities such as length, tone, stress, and intonation.
The traditional view of vowel production, reflected for example in the terminology and presentation of the International Phonetic Alphabet, is one of articulatory features that determine a vowel's quality as distinguishing it from other vowels.

Lisp

lisplateral lisplisping
To represent additional qualities of speech, such as tooth gnashing, lisping, and sounds made with a cleft lip and cleft palate, an extended set of symbols, the extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet, may be used.

Diacritic

diacriticdiacriticsdiacritical mark
Among the symbols of the IPA, 107 letters represent consonants and vowels, 31 diacritics are used to modify these, and 19 additional signs indicate suprasegmental qualities such as length, tone, stress, and intonation. IPA symbols are composed of one or more elements of two basic types, letters and diacritics.

International Phonetic Association

IPAInternational Phonetic AssociationInternational Phonetic Congress
It was devised by the International Phonetic Association in the late 19th century as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language.
The IPA’s major contribution to phonetics is the International Phonetic Alphabet—a notational standard for the phonetic representation of all languages.

Syllable

syllablecodasyllable coda
The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are part of oral language: phones, phonemes, intonation and the separation of words and syllables.
In the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), the period marks syllable breaks, such as in the word "astronomical".

Voiced velar fricative

voiced velar fricativeɣvelar fricative
Opentail has always represented a voiced velar plosive, while was distinguished from and represented a voiced velar fricative from 1895 to 1900.
The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is, a Latinized variant of the Greek letter gamma,, which has this sound in Modern Greek.

Voiced velar stop

voiced velar stopvoiced velar plosiveg
Opentail has always represented a voiced velar plosive, while was distinguished from and represented a voiced velar fricative from 1895 to 1900.
The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is.

Obsolete and nonstandard symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet

ƻʯƾ
Although IPA is popular for transcription by linguists, American linguists often alternate use of the IPA with Americanist phonetic notation or use the IPA together with some nonstandard symbols, for reasons including reducing the error rate on reading handwritten transcriptions or avoiding perceived awkwardness of IPA in some situations.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) possesses a variety of obsolete and nonstandard symbols.

Open central unrounded vowel

open central unrounded vowelaä
The procedure for modifying the alphabet or the chart is to propose the change in the Journal of the IPA. (See, for example, August 2008 on an open central unrounded vowel and August 2011 on central approximants.) Reactions to the proposal may be published in the same or subsequent issues of the Journal (as in August 2009 on the open central vowel).
While the International Phonetic Alphabet officially has no dedicated letter for this sound between front and back, it is normally written.

Pharyngeal consonant

pharyngealpharyngeal consonantepiglottal
A few letters, such as that of the voiced pharyngeal fricative, were inspired by other writing systems (in this case, the Arabic letter ).
Pharyngeal/epiglottal consonants in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA):

Pronunciation respelling for English

diacritical respelling schemeEnglish Phonetic Alphabetrespelling systems
Many British dictionaries, including the Oxford English Dictionary and some learner's dictionaries such as the Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary and the Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary, now use the International Phonetic Alphabet to represent the pronunciation of words.
As an example, the pronunciation of Arkansas, transcribed in the IPA, might be respelled är′kən-sô′ or in a phonemic system, and arken-saw in a non-phonemic system.

IPA Extensions

IPA ExtensionsIPA Extensions IPA Extensions (Unicode block)
These, and others, are supported by Unicode, but appear in Latin ranges other than the IPA extensions.
IPA Extensions is a block (0250–02AF) of the Unicode standard that contains full size letters used in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA).

Romic alphabet

Their original alphabet was based on a spelling reform for English known as the Romic alphabet, but in order to make it usable for other languages, the values of the symbols were allowed to vary from language to language.
It descends from Ellis's Palaeotype alphabet and English Phonotypic Alphabet, and is the direct ancestor of the International Phonetic Alphabet.