A report on International Phonetic Alphabet

The official chart of the IPA, revised in 2020
Typographic variants include a double-story and single-story g.
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The authors of textbooks or similar publications often create revised versions of the IPA chart to express their own preferences or needs. The image displays one such version. All pulmonic consonants are moved to the consonant chart. Only the black symbols are on the official IPA chart; additional symbols are in grey. The grey fricatives are part of the extIPA, and the grey retroflex letters are mentioned or implicit in the Handbook. The grey click is a retired IPA letter that is still in use.
Phonetic transcriptions of the word international in two English dialects
Tongue positions of cardinal front vowels, with highest point indicated. The position of the highest point is used to determine vowel height and backness.
X-ray photos show the sounds.

Alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin script.

- International Phonetic Alphabet
The official chart of the IPA, revised in 2020

87 related topics with Alpha

Overall

X-rays of Daniel Jones'.

Vowel

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Syllabic speech sound pronounced without any stricture in the vocal tract.

Syllabic speech sound pronounced without any stricture in the vocal tract.

X-rays of Daniel Jones'.
The original vowel quadrilateral, from Jones' articulation. The vowel trapezoid of the modern IPA, and at the top of this article, is a simplified rendition of this diagram. The bullets are the cardinal vowel points. (A parallel diagram covers the front and central rounded and back unrounded vowels.) The cells indicate the ranges of articulation that could reasonably be transcribed with those cardinal vowel letters,, and non-cardinal . If a language distinguishes fewer than these vowel qualities, could be merged to, to ,  to , etc. If a language distinguishes more,  could be added where the ranges of  intersect,  where  intersect, and  where  intersect.
Idealistic tongue positions of cardinal front vowels with highest point indicated.
Front, raised and retracted are the three articulatory dimensions of vowel space. Open and close refer to the jaw, not the tongue.
Spectrogram of vowels . is a low vowel, so its F1 value is higher than that of and, which are high vowels.  is a front vowel, so its F2 is substantially higher than that of  and, which are back vowels.

The traditional view of vowel production, reflected for example in the terminology and presentation of the International Phonetic Alphabet, is one of articulatory features that determine a vowel's quality as distinguishing it from other vowels.

A simplified procedure for determining whether two sounds represent the same or different phonemes

Phoneme

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Unit of sound that can distinguish one word from another in a particular language.

Unit of sound that can distinguish one word from another in a particular language.

A simplified procedure for determining whether two sounds represent the same or different phonemes

The symbols used for particular phonemes are often taken from the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), the same set of symbols most commonly used for phones.

IPA

Phonetic transcription

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Visual representation of speech sounds (or phones) by means of symbols.

Visual representation of speech sounds (or phones) by means of symbols.

IPA
Visible Speech

The most common type of phonetic transcription uses a phonetic alphabet, such as the International Phonetic Alphabet.

Consonant

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Speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.

Speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.

Since the number of speech sounds in the world's languages is much greater than the number of letters in any one alphabet, linguists have devised systems such as the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) to assign a unique and unambiguous symbol to each attested consonant.

A top-down view of the larynx.

Phonetics

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Branch of linguistics that studies how humans produce and perceive sounds, or in the case of sign languages, the equivalent aspects of sign.

Branch of linguistics that studies how humans produce and perceive sounds, or in the case of sign languages, the equivalent aspects of sign.

A top-down view of the larynx.
A waveform (top), spectrogram (middle), and transcription (bottom) of a woman saying "Wikipedia" displayed using the Praat software for linguistic analysis.

Phoneticians were expected to learn to recognize by ear the various sounds on the International Phonetic Alphabet and the IPA still tests and certifies speakers on their ability to accurately produce the phonetic patterns of English (though they have discontinued this practice for other languages).

Genesis 1:9 "And God said, Let the waters be collected". Letters in black, niqqud in red, cantillation in blue

Diacritic

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Glyph added to a letter or to a basic glyph.

Glyph added to a letter or to a basic glyph.

Genesis 1:9 "And God said, Let the waters be collected". Letters in black, niqqud in red, cantillation in blue
Hangul, the Korean alphabet
keyboard
Blackboard used in class at Harvard shows students' efforts at placing the ü and acute accent diacritic used in Spanish orthography.

◌ː – triangular colon, used in the IPA to mark long vowels.

Six Tones of Vietnamese

Tone (linguistics)

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Use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.

Use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.

Six Tones of Vietnamese
Vietnamese tones ngang "flat" tone, huyền "deep" tone or "falling" tone (À), sắc "sharp" or "rising" tone (Á), nặng "heavy" or "down" tone (Ạ), hỏi "asking" tone (Ả), ngã "tumbling" tone (Ã)
The tone contours of Standard Chinese. In the convention for Chinese, 1 is low and 5 is high. The corresponding tone letters are.

The easiest notation from a typographical perspective – but one that is internationally ambiguous – is a numbering system, with the pitch levels assigned digits and each tone transcribed as a digit (or as a sequence of digits if a contour tone). Such systems tend to be idiosyncratic (high tone may be assigned the digit 1, 3, or 5, for example) and have therefore not been adopted for the International Phonetic Alphabet. For instance, high tone is conventionally written with a 1 and low tone with a 4 or 5 when transcribing the Kru languages of Liberia, but with 1 for low and 5 for high for the Omotic languages of Ethiopia. The tone 53 in a Kru language is thus the same pitch contour as one written 35 in an Omotic language. Pitch value 1 may be distinguished from tone number 1 by doubling it or making it superscript or both.

De chalcographiae inventione (1541, Mainz) with the 23 letters. J, U and W are missing.

Latin script

4 links

Alphabetic writing system based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet used by the Etruscans.

Alphabetic writing system based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet used by the Etruscans.

De chalcographiae inventione (1541, Mainz) with the 23 letters. J, U and W are missing.
Jeton from Nuremberg, c. 1553
The distribution of the Latin script. The dark green areas show the countries where the Latin script is the sole main script. Light green shows countries where Latin co-exists with other scripts. Latin-script alphabets are sometimes extensively used in areas coloured grey due to the use of unofficial second languages, such as French in Algeria and English in Egypt, and to Latin transliteration of the official script, such as pinyin in China.
The letter with an acute diacritic

The Latin script is the basis of the International Phonetic Alphabet, and the 26 most widespread letters are the letters contained in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

Syllable components as a directed graph

Syllable

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Unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds typically made up of a syllable nucleus with optional initial and final margins (typically, consonants).

Unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds typically made up of a syllable nucleus with optional initial and final margins (typically, consonants).

Syllable components as a directed graph
Segmental model for cat and sing
Traditional Chinese syllable structure
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Hierarchical model for cat and sing
Left-branching hierarchical model
Branching nucleus for pout and branching coda for pond
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In the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), the period marks syllable breaks, as in the word "astronomical".

The West Germanic languages

English language

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West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family, originally spoken by the inhabitants of early medieval England.

West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family, originally spoken by the inhabitants of early medieval England.

The West Germanic languages
The opening to the Old English epic poem Beowulf, handwritten in half-uncial script: Hƿæt ƿē Gārde/na ingēar dagum þēod cyninga / þrym ge frunon... "Listen! We of the Spear-Danes from days of yore have heard of the glory of the folk-kings..."
Graphic representation of the Great Vowel Shift, showing how the pronunciation of the long vowels gradually shifted, with the high vowels i: and u: breaking into diphthongs and the lower vowels each shifting their pronunciation up one level
Braj Kachru's Three Circles of English
Countries in which English Language is a Mandatory or an Optional Subject
In the English sentence The cat sat on the mat, the subject is the cat (a noun phrase), the verb is sat, and on the mat is a prepositional phrase (composed of a noun phrase the mat headed by the preposition on). The tree describes the structure of the sentence.
Map showing the main dialect regions in the UK and Ireland
Rhoticity dominates in North American English. The Atlas of North American English found over 50% non-rhoticity, though, in at least one local white speaker in each U.S. metropolitan area designated here by a red dot. Non-rhotic African American Vernacular English pronunciations may be found among African Americans regardless of location.
Countries in which English Language is a Mandatory or an Optional SubjectEnglish is the dominant languageEnglish is a mandatory subjectEnglish is an optional subjectNo data

The phonetic symbols used below are from the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA).