International law

public international lawinternationallaw of nationsinternational conventioninternational public lawinternational lawyerinternational lawstransnational lawinternational conventionspublic
International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally accepted in relations between nations.wikipedia
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Sources of international law

primary source of international lawSourcesa source of international law
The sources of international law include international custom (general state practice accepted as law), treaties, and general principles of law recognized by most national legal systems.
International law also known as "law of nations" is the name of a body of rules which regulate the conduct of sovereign states in their relations with one another.

Customary international law

customaryinternational customary lawcustom
The sources of international law include international custom (general state practice accepted as law), treaties, and general principles of law recognized by most national legal systems.
Customary international law is an aspect of international law involving the principle of custom.

Peremptory norm

jus cogensius cogensnorm
However, such violations, particularly of customary international law and peremptory norms (jus cogens), can be met with coercive action, ranging from military intervention to diplomatic and economic pressure.
A peremptory norm (also called jus cogens or ius cogens ; Latin for "compelling law") is a fundamental principle of international law that is accepted by the international community of states as a norm from which no derogation is permitted.

Geneva Conventions

Geneva Conventionillegal under international lawCommon Article 3
Treaties such as the Geneva Conventions may require national law to conform to treaty provisions.
The Geneva Conventions comprise four treaties, and three additional protocols, that establish the standards of international law for humanitarian treatment in war.

International criminal law

international crimesinternational crimeinternational criminal justice
On this view, "public" international law is said to cover relations between nation-states and includes fields such as treaty law, law of sea, international criminal law, the laws of war or international humanitarian law, international human rights law, and refugee law.
International criminal law is a body of public international law designed to prohibit certain categories of conduct commonly viewed as serious atrocities and to make perpetrators of such conduct criminally accountable for their perpetration.

International human rights law

human rights lawinternational human rightsinternational human rights treaties
On this view, "public" international law is said to cover relations between nation-states and includes fields such as treaty law, law of sea, international criminal law, the laws of war or international humanitarian law, international human rights law, and refugee law.
International human rights law (IHRL) is the body of international law designed to promote human rights on social, regional, and domestic levels.

International humanitarian law

humanitarian lawLaw of Armed Conflictinternational humanitarian
On this view, "public" international law is said to cover relations between nation-states and includes fields such as treaty law, law of sea, international criminal law, the laws of war or international humanitarian law, international human rights law, and refugee law. Concurrently, in the Islamic world, foreign relations were guided based on the division of the world into three categories: The dar al-Islam (territory of Islam), where Islamic law prevailed; dar al-sulh (territory of treaty), non-Islamic realms that have concluded an armistice with a Muslim government; and dar al-harb (territory of war), non-Islamic lands whose rulers are called upon to accept Islam. Under the early Caliphate of the seventh century C.E., Islamic legal principles concerning military conduct and the treatment of prisoners of war served as precursors to modern international humanitarian law.
It is a branch of international law which seeks to limit the effects of armed conflict by protecting persons who are not participating in hostilities, and by restricting and regulating the means and methods of warfare available to combatants.

Jus gentium

ius gentiumlaw of nationsby custom
Roman lawyers would have further distinguished jus gentium, the law of nations, and jus inter gentes, agreements between nations.
The ius gentium or jus gentium (Latin for "law of nations") is a concept of international law within the ancient Roman legal system and Western law traditions based on or influenced by it.

Monism and dualism in international law

dualistLegal dualismmonist
The relationship and interaction between a national legal system (municipal law) and international law is complex and variable.
The terms monism and dualism are used to describe two different theories of the relationship between international law and national law.

Refugee law

asylum lawlegally definedrefugee rights
On this view, "public" international law is said to cover relations between nation-states and includes fields such as treaty law, law of sea, international criminal law, the laws of war or international humanitarian law, international human rights law, and refugee law.
Refugee law is the branch of international law which deals with the rights and duties States have vis-a-vis refugees.

European Union law

EU lawEuropean lawlaw of the European Union
The European Union is most prominent example of an international treaty organization that implements a supranational legal framework, with the European Court of Justice having supremacy over all member-nation courts in matter of European Union law.
According to its Court of Justice, the EU represents "a new legal order of international law".

Supranational law

supranationalinternational lawinternationally accepted legal system
A more recent concept is "supranational law", which concerns regional agreements where the laws of nation states may be held inapplicable when conflicting with a supranational legal system to which the nation has a treaty obligation.
Supranational law is a form of international law, based on the limitation of the rights of sovereign nations between one another.

Comity

comitalinternational comitycomity of nations
International law may also be reflected in international comity, the practices and customs adopted by states to maintain good relations and mutual recognition, such as saluting the flag of a foreign ship or enforcing a foreign judgment.
The doctrine of international comity has been described variously "as a choice-of-law principle, a synonym for private international law, a rule of public international law, a moral obligation, expediency, courtesy, reciprocity, utility, or diplomacy. Authorities disagree as to whether comity is a rule of natural law, custom, treaty, or domestic law. Indeed, there is not even agreement that comity is a rule of law at all."

Hugo Grotius

GrotiusGrotianHugo de Groot
The Dutch jurist Hugo Grotius (1583–1645) is widely regarded as the most seminal figure in international law, being one of the first scholars to articulate an international order that consists of a "society of states" governed not by force or warfare but by actual laws, mutual agreements, and customs.
Along with the earlier works of Francisco de Vitoria and Alberico Gentili, he laid the foundations for international law, based on natural law.

Freedom of the seas

freedom of the high seasfree seasfree to all shipping
He also emphasized the freedom of the high seas, which was not only relevant to the growing number of European states exploring and colonising the world, but remains a cornerstone of international law today.
Freedom of the seas (mare liberum, lit. "free sea") is a principle in the international law and sea.

Westphalian sovereignty

national sovereigntystate sovereigntyWestphalian
International law differs from state-based legal systems in that it is primarily—though not exclusively—applicable to countries, rather than to individuals, and operates largely through consent, since there is no universally accepted authority to enforce it upon sovereign states. Consequently, states may choose to not abide by international law, and even to break a treaty.
Westphalian sovereignty, or state sovereignty, is a principle in international law that each state has exclusive sovereignty over its territory.

Alberico Gentili

Alberic GentilisAdv. Sir Alberico GentiliAlberico Gentile
The most famous contributor from the region, Alberico Gentili (1552–1608), is considered a founder of international law, authoring one of the earliest works on the subject, De Legationibus Libri Tres, in 1585.
He is heralded as the founder of the science of international law alongside Francisco de Vitoria and Hugo Grotius, and thus known as the "Father of international law".

Prisoner of war

prisoners of warPOWPOWs
Concurrently, in the Islamic world, foreign relations were guided based on the division of the world into three categories: The dar al-Islam (territory of Islam), where Islamic law prevailed; dar al-sulh (territory of treaty), non-Islamic realms that have concluded an armistice with a Muslim government; and dar al-harb (territory of war), non-Islamic lands whose rulers are called upon to accept Islam. Under the early Caliphate of the seventh century C.E., Islamic legal principles concerning military conduct and the treatment of prisoners of war served as precursors to modern international humanitarian law.
Although no agreements were immediately ratified by the participating nations, work was continued that resulted in new conventions being adopted and becoming recognized as international law that specified that prisoners of war be treated humanely and diplomatically.

Self-determination

self determinationright to self-determinationnational self-determination
International law began to incorporate more naturalist notions such as self determination and human rights.
The right of a people to self-determination is a cardinal principle in modern international law (commonly regarded as a jus cogens rule), binding, as such, on the United Nations as authoritative interpretation of the Charter's norms.

Roman citizenship

Roman citizenRoman citizenscitizens
The Roman Empire established an early conceptual framework for international law, jus gentium ("law of nations"), which governed both the status of foreigners living in Rome and relations between foreigners and Roman citizens.

Francisco de Vitoria

Francisco de '''Vitoriade VitoriaFrancisco de Vittoria
Francisco de Vitoria (1486–1546), who was concerned with the treatment of the indigenous peoples by Spain, invoked the law of nations as a basis for their innate dignity and rights, articulating an early version of sovereign equality between peoples.
He is the founder of the tradition in philosophy known as the School of Salamanca, noted especially for his contributions to the theory of just war and international law.

Peace of Westphalia

Treaty of WestphaliaTreaty of Münster1648
The developments of the 16th century came to a head at the conclusion of the "Peace of Westphalia" in 1648, which is considered to be the seminal event in international law.
As European influence spread across the globe, these Westphalian principles, especially the concept of sovereign states, became central to international law and to the prevailing world order.

Jus inter gentes

ius inter gentes
Roman lawyers would have further distinguished jus gentium, the law of nations, and jus inter gentes, agreements between nations.
Originally a Roman law concept, it later became a major part of public international law.

Roman Empire

RomanRomansEmpire
The Roman Empire established an early conceptual framework for international law, jus gentium ("law of nations"), which governed both the status of foreigners living in Rome and relations between foreigners and Roman citizens.
The compatibility of Roman and local law was thought to reflect an underlying ius gentium, the "law of nations" or international law regarded as common and customary among all human communities.

Human rights

human righthuman rights violationshuman rights abuses
International law began to incorporate more naturalist notions such as self determination and human rights.
Human rights are moral principles or norms that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.