International law

The Hittite version of the Treaty of Kadesh, among the earliest extant examples of an international agreement.
Hugo Grotius' De jure belli ac pacis, is considered one of the foundational texts of international law. (Pictured is the title page from the second edition of 1631).
A portrait of the Dutch jurist Hugo Grotius (alias Hugo de Groot)
Sir Alberico Gentili is regarded as the Father of international law.
The First Geneva Convention (1864) is one of the earliest formulations of international law

Set of rules, norms, and standards generally recognized as binding between nations.

- International law

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Law of war

The First Geneva Convention governing the sick and wounded members of armed forces was signed in 1864.
The signing of the First Geneva Convention by some of the major European powers in 1864.
1904 article outlining the basic principles of the law of war, as published in the Tacoma Times.
The emblem of the International Committee of the Red Cross (French: Comité international de la croix-rouge).

The law of war is the component of international law that regulates the conditions for initiating war (jus ad bellum) and the conduct of warring parties (jus in bello).

International humanitarian law

Law that regulates the conduct of war (jus in bello).

The First Geneva Convention of 1864.
Progression of Geneva Conventions from 1864 to 1949.
Emblem of the ICRC

It is a branch of international law that seeks to limit the effects of armed conflict by protecting persons who are not participating in hostilities and by restricting and regulating the means and methods of warfare available to combatants.

International human rights law

International Human Rights Day 2018 (45346105045)
Eleanor Roosevelt UDHR

International human rights law (IHRL) is the body of international law designed to promote human rights on social, regional, and domestic levels.

Admiralty law

Body of law that governs nautical issues and private maritime disputes.

Iustitia ("Lady Justice") is a symbolic personification of the coercive power of a tribunal: a sword representing state authority, scales representing an objective standard and a blindfold indicating that justice should be impartial.

Admiralty law may be distinguished from the law of the sea, which is a body of public international law dealing with navigational rights, mineral rights, jurisdiction over coastal waters, and the maritime relationships between nations.

Peremptory norm

A peremptory norm (also called jus cogens or ius cogens ; Latin for "compelling law") is a fundamental principle of international law that is accepted by the international community of states as a norm from which no derogation is permitted.

Sources of international law

The Hittite version of the Treaty of Kadesh, among the earliest extant examples of an international agreement.

International law, also known as "law of nations", refers to the body of rules which regulate the conduct of sovereign states in their relations with one another.

Comity

In law, comity is "a practice among different political entities (as countries, states, or courts of different jurisdictions)" involving the "mutual recognition of legislative, executive, and judicial acts."

A trial at the Old Bailey in London as drawn by Thomas Rowlandson and Augustus Pugin for Ackermann's Microcosm of London (1808–11).

The doctrine of international comity has been described variously "as a choice-of-law principle, a synonym for private international law, a rule of public international law, a moral obligation, expediency, courtesy, reciprocity, utility, or diplomacy. Authorities disagree as to whether comity is a rule of natural law, custom, treaty, or domestic law. Indeed, there is not even agreement that comity is a rule of law at all."

Municipal law

Iustitia ("Lady Justice") is a symbolic personification of the coercive power of a tribunal: a sword representing state authority, scales representing an objective standard and a blindfold indicating that justice should be impartial.

Municipal law is the national, domestic, or internal law of a sovereign state and is defined in opposition to international law.

Customary international law

The Hittite version of the Treaty of Kadesh, among the earliest extant examples of an international agreement.

Customary international law is an aspect of international law involving the principle of custom.

Treaty

The Moroccan-American Treaty of Peace and Friendship, sealed by Sultan Mohammed III.
The signing of the Geneva Conventions in 1949. A country’s signature, through plenipotentiaries with "full power" to conclude a treaty, is often sufficient to manifest an intention to be bound by the treaty.
The International Court of Justice is often called upon to aid in the interpretation or implementation of treaties.
A treaty delegation of the Mdewakanton and Wahpekute indigenous tribes to Washington, D.C. (1858).

A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law.