International relations

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The field of international relations dates from the time of the Greek historian Thucydides.
The official portraits of King Władysław IV dressed according to French, Spanish and Polish fashion reflects the complex politics of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth during the Thirty Years' War.
Empires of the world in 1910
NATO International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan
The United Nations Secretariat Building at the United Nations headquarters in New York City
The World Bank headquarters in Washington, D.C.
NATO E-3A flying with USAF F-16s in a NATO exercise

Scientific study of interactions between sovereign states.

- International relations
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Walsh School of Foreign Service

Healy Hall in Georgetown's Main Campus in Washington, D.C.
Bill Clinton, class of 1968, ran for student council president his senior year.

The Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service (SFS) is the school of international relations at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C. It is considered to be one of the world's leading international affairs schools, granting degrees at both undergraduate and graduate levels.

The ancient Silk Road trade routes across Eurasia.

International economics

Concerned with the effects upon economic activity from international differences in productive resources and consumer preferences and the international institutions that affect them.

Concerned with the effects upon economic activity from international differences in productive resources and consumer preferences and the international institutions that affect them.

The ancient Silk Road trade routes across Eurasia.

International political economy, a sub-category of international relations, studies issues and impacts from for example international conflicts, international negotiations, and international sanctions; national security and economic nationalism; and international agreements and observance.

The ratification of the Treaty of Münster, part of the Peace of Westphalia that ended the Thirty Years' War.

Westphalian sovereignty

Principle in international law that each state has exclusive sovereignty over its territory.

Principle in international law that each state has exclusive sovereignty over its territory.

The ratification of the Treaty of Münster, part of the Peace of Westphalia that ended the Thirty Years' War.

The principle underlies the modern international system of sovereign states and is enshrined in the United Nations Charter, which states that "nothing ... shall authorize the United Nations to intervene in matters which are essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of any state."

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Multilateralism

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In international relations, multilateralism refers to an alliance of multiple countries pursuing a common goal.

Member states of the United Nations (UN), as defined by the UN.

Sovereign state

Political entity represented by one centralized government that has supreme legitimate authority over territory.

Political entity represented by one centralized government that has supreme legitimate authority over territory.

Member states of the United Nations (UN), as defined by the UN.
De facto map of control of the world, May 2019

International law defines sovereign states as having a permanent population, defined territory (see territorial disputes), one government, and the capacity to enter into relations with other sovereign states.

The United Nations, with its headquarters in New York City, is the largest international diplomatic organization.

Diplomacy

Diplomacy comprises spoken or written speech acts by representatives of states (such as leaders and diplomats) intended to influence events in the international system.

Diplomacy comprises spoken or written speech acts by representatives of states (such as leaders and diplomats) intended to influence events in the international system.

The United Nations, with its headquarters in New York City, is the largest international diplomatic organization.
Ger van Elk, Symmetry of Diplomacy, 1975, Groninger Museum.
The Egyptian–Hittite peace treaty, between the New Kingdom of ancient Egypt and the Hittite Empire of Anatolia
stone tablet fragments
A French ambassador in Ottoman dress, painted by Antoine de Favray, 1766, Pera Museum, Istanbul.
Portraits of Periodical Offering, a 6th-century Chinese painting portraying various emissaries; ambassadors depicted in the painting ranging from those of Hephthalites, Persia to Langkasuka, Baekje(part of the modern Korea), Qiuci, and Wo (Japan).
India's Diplomatic Personnel
Omurtag, ruler of Bulgaria, sends delegation to Byzantine emperor Michael II (Madrid Skylitzes, Biblioteca Nacional de España, Madrid).
French diplomat Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord is considered one of the most skilled diplomats of all time.
The First Geneva Convention (1864). Geneva (Switzerland) is the city that hosts the highest number of international organizations in the world.
Frontispiece of the Acts of the Congress of Vienna.
Brazilian President Prudente de Morais shakes hands with King Carlos I of Portugal during the re-establishment of diplomatic relations between Brazil and Portugal after talks mediated by Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, 16 March 1895.
Anton von Werner, Congress of Berlin (1881): Final meeting at the Reich Chancellery on 13 July 1878.
Celebrating the signing of the Camp David Accords: Menachem Begin, Jimmy Carter, Anwar El Sadat
Czech (originally Czechoslovak) Embassy in Berlin.
The ministers of foreign affairs of the United States, the United Kingdom, Russia, Germany, France, China, the European Union and Iran negotiating in Lausanne for a Comprehensive agreement on the Iranian nuclear programme (30 March 2015).
The Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation at 53/2 Ostozhenka Street in Moscow.

International treaties, agreements, alliances, and other manifestations of international relations are usually the result of diplomatic negotiations and processes.

The 13th century world-system, as described by Janet Abu-Lughod

Globalization

Process of interaction and integration among people, companies, and governments worldwide.

Process of interaction and integration among people, companies, and governments worldwide.

The 13th century world-system, as described by Janet Abu-Lughod
Portuguese carrack in Nagasaki, 17th-century Japanese Nanban art
The Silk Road in the 1st century
Native New World crops exchanged globally: Maize, tomato, potato, vanilla, rubber, cacao, tobacco
Lisbon in the 1570s had many Africans
The 1843 launch of the Great Britain, the revolutionary ship of Isambard Kingdom Brunel
During the 19th and early 20th centuries, the United Kingdom was a global superpower.
D.H. Comet, the world's first commercial jet airliner, entered service in 1949
With a population of 1.4 billion, China is the world's second-largest economy.
Singapore is the top country in the Enabling Trade Index.
U.S. Trade Balance and Trade Policy (1895–2015)
Dividends worth CZK 289 billion were paid to the foreign owners of Czech companies in 2016.
Shakira, a Colombian multilingual singer-songwriter, playing outside her home country
McDonald's is commonly seen as a symbol of Globalization, often called McDonaldization of global society
Use of chili pepper has spread from the Americas to cuisines around the world, including Thailand, Korea, China, and Italy.
The United Nations Headquarters in New York City
U.S. military presence around the world in 2007., the U.S. still had many bases and troops stationed globally.
From the documentary Ukraine Is Not a Brothel. Radical group Femen protest against the increase in sex tourism into Ukraine.
Scheduled airline traffic in 2009
2010 London Youth Games opening ceremony. About 69% of children born in London in 2015 had at least one parent who was born abroad.
The global digital divide: Computers per 100 people
The European Union–Mercosur free trade agreement, which would form one of the world's largest free trade areas, has been denounced by environmental activists and indigenous rights campaigners.
Hu Jintao of China and George W. Bush meet while attending an APEC summit in Santiago de Chile, 2004
As of 2017, there were 2,754 U.S. dollar billionaires worldwide, with a combined wealth of over US$9.2trillion.
Of the factors influencing the duration of economic growth in both developed and developing countries, income equality has a more beneficial impact than trade openness, sound political institutions, and foreign investment.
Worlds regions by total wealth (in trillions USD), 2018
Barack Obama and Dmitry Medvedev after signing the New START treaty in Prague, 2010
Anti-TTIP demonstration in Hannover, Germany, 2016
World Bank Protester, Jakarta, Indonesia
Differences in national income equality around the world as measured by the national Gini coefficient, as of 2018.
Countries by total wealth (trillions USD), Credit Suisse
Global share of wealth by wealth group, Credit Suisse, 2017
Immigrant rights march for amnesty, Los Angeles, on May Day, 2006
Deforestation of the Madagascar Highland Plateau has led to extensive siltation and unstable flows of western rivers.
a shows carbon footprint (CF) hotspots of foreign final consumption in China. b–d show carbon footprint hotspots of the consumption of the United States, Hong Kong, and Japan, respectively. Among all foreign regions, the United States, Hong Kong, and Japan have the largest CFs in China, contributing ~23.0%, 10.8%, and 9.0%, respectively, to the total foreign CF in China in 2012.

They note the term was used "in education to describe the global life of the mind"; in international relations to describe the extension of the European Common Market, and in journalism to describe how the "American Negro and his problem are taking on a global significance".

The historic town hall of Münster where the treaty was signed

Peace of Westphalia

Collective name for two peace treaties signed in October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück and Münster.

Collective name for two peace treaties signed in October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück and Münster.

The historic town hall of Münster where the treaty was signed
Dutch envoy Adriaan Pauw enters Münster around 1646 for the peace negotiations
Sebastian Dadler undated medal (1648), Christina of Sweden, portrait with feathered helmet right. Obverse
The reverse of this medal: Christina of Sweden as Minerva holding an olive branch in her left arm and grasping the tree of knowledge with her right hand.
A map showing European borders in 1648
The Holy Roman Empire in 1648
Allegory of the Peace of Westphalia, by Jacob Jordaens.

Scholars of international relations have identified the Peace of Westphalia as the origin of principles crucial to modern international relations, collectively known as Westphalian sovereignty, though other historians argue that this is largely a myth invented after the fact.

Chronology of the universe as deduced by the prevailing Big Bang theory, a result from science and obtained knowledge

Political science

Scientific study of politics.

Scientific study of politics.

Chronology of the universe as deduced by the prevailing Big Bang theory, a result from science and obtained knowledge

Modern political science can generally be divided into the three subdisciplines of comparative politics, international relations, and political theory.

J. K. Paasikivi, the President of Finland, was remembered as a main architect of Finland's foreign policy with the Soviet Union after the Second World War. From left to right: President Paasikivi and Soviet head of state Kliment Voroshilov in Moscow.

Foreign policy

Its objectives and activities in relation to its interactions with other states, unions, and other political entities, whether bilaterally or through multilateral platforms.

Its objectives and activities in relation to its interactions with other states, unions, and other political entities, whether bilaterally or through multilateral platforms.

J. K. Paasikivi, the President of Finland, was remembered as a main architect of Finland's foreign policy with the Soviet Union after the Second World War. From left to right: President Paasikivi and Soviet head of state Kliment Voroshilov in Moscow.

Although originally intended to describe short term management of a specific concern, these departments now manage all day-to-day and long-term international relations among states.