International relations

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The field of international relations dates from the time of the Greek historian Thucydides.
The official portraits of King Władysław IV dressed according to French, Spanish and Polish fashion reflects the complex politics of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth during the Thirty Years' War.
Empires of the world in 1910
NATO International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan
The United Nations Secretariat Building at the United Nations headquarters in New York City
The World Bank headquarters in Washington, D.C.
NATO E-3A flying with USAF F-16s in a NATO exercise

Scientific study of interactions between sovereign states.

- International relations
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70 related topics

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Mearsheimer in 2007

John Mearsheimer

Mearsheimer in 2007

John Joseph Mearsheimer (born December 14, 1947) is an American political scientist and international relations scholar, who belongs to the realist school of thought.

Niccolò Machiavelli's work The Prince of 1532 was a major stimulus to realist thinking.

Realism (international relations)

One of the dominant schools of thought in international relations theory, theoretically formalising the Realpolitik statesmanship of early modern Europe.

One of the dominant schools of thought in international relations theory, theoretically formalising the Realpolitik statesmanship of early modern Europe.

Niccolò Machiavelli's work The Prince of 1532 was a major stimulus to realist thinking.

While states remain the principal actors, greater attention is given to the forces above and below the states through levels of analysis or structure and agency debate.

Morgenthau in 1963

Hans Morgenthau

German-American jurist and political scientist.

German-American jurist and political scientist.

Morgenthau in 1963
Morgenthau was a consultant for the Kennedy administration from 1961 to 1963
Morgenthau's dissent against Vietnam policy caused the Johnson administration to dismiss him as an advisor and to assign McGeorge Bundy to publicly oppose him in 1965
Stolperstein for Hans Morgenthau at the Casimirianum Coburg.

He was one of the major twentieth-century figures in the study of international relations.

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Neorealism (international relations)

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Neorealism or structural realism is a theory of international relations that emphasizes the role of power politics in international relations, sees competition and conflict as enduring features and sees limited potential for cooperation.

Keohane in 2017

Robert Keohane

Keohane in 2017

Robert Owen Keohane (born October 3, 1941) is an American academic working within the fields of International Relations and International Political Economy.

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Hegemonic stability theory

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Hegemonic stability theory (HST) is a theory of international relations, rooted in research from the fields of political science, economics, and history.

Empires of the world in 1905, with minor mistakes.

Polarity (international relations)

Empires of the world in 1905, with minor mistakes.

Polarity in international relations is any of the various ways in which power is distributed within the international system.

The Hittite version of the Treaty of Kadesh, among the earliest extant examples of an international agreement.

International law

Set of rules, norms, and standards generally recognized as binding between nations.

Set of rules, norms, and standards generally recognized as binding between nations.

The Hittite version of the Treaty of Kadesh, among the earliest extant examples of an international agreement.
Hugo Grotius' De jure belli ac pacis, is considered one of the foundational texts of international law. (Pictured is the title page from the second edition of 1631).
A portrait of the Dutch jurist Hugo Grotius (alias Hugo de Groot)
Sir Alberico Gentili is regarded as the Father of international law.
The First Geneva Convention (1864) is one of the earliest formulations of international law

As D. W. Greig notes, "international law cannot exist in isolation from the political factors operating in the sphere of international relations".

United Nations

Intergovernmental organization whose purpose is to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations.

Intergovernmental organization whose purpose is to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations.

Members of the United Nations
1943 sketch by Franklin Roosevelt of the UN original three branches: The Four Policemen, an executive branch, and an international assembly of forty UN member states
The UN in 1945: founding members in light blue, protectorates and territories of the founding members in dark blue
Dag Hammarskjöld was a particularly active secretary-general from 1953 until his death in 1961.
Kofi Annan, secretary-general from 1997 to 2006
Flags of member nations at the United Nations Headquarters, seen in 2007
Mikhail Gorbachev, Soviet general secretary, addressing the UN General Assembly in December 1988
Colin Powell, the US Secretary of State, demonstrates a vial with alleged Iraq chemical weapon probes to the UN Security Council on Iraq war hearings, 5 February 2003
Current secretary-general, António Guterres
The ICJ ruled that Kosovo's unilateral declaration of independence from Serbia in 2008 did not violate international law.
Under Sukarno, Indonesia became the first and only country to leave the United Nations.
A Nepalese soldier on a peacekeeping deployment providing security at a rice distribution site in Haiti during 2010
The UN Buffer Zone in Cyprus was established in 1974 following the Turkish invasion of Cyprus.
Eleanor Roosevelt with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1949
Three former directors of the Global Smallpox Eradication Programme reading the news that smallpox has been globally eradicated in 1980
In Jordan, UNHCR remains responsible for the Syrian refugees and the Zaatari refugee camp.
The 2001 Nobel Peace Prize to the UN—diploma in the lobby of the UN Headquarters in New York City
Marking of the UN's 70th anniversary – Budapest, 2015

The United States has preferred a feeble United Nations in major projects undertaken by the UN so as to forestall UN interference with, or resistance to, United States policies, according to international relations scholar Edward Luck, former director of the Center on International Organization of the School of International and Public Affairs of Columbia University.

Ancient Greece under the hegemony of Thebes, 371–362 BC

Hegemony

Political, economic, and military predominance of one state over other states.

Political, economic, and military predominance of one state over other states.

Ancient Greece under the hegemony of Thebes, 371–362 BC
The League of Corinth hegemony: the Kingdom of Macedonia (362 BC) (red) and the Corinthian League (yellow)
The Roman Empire at its greatest extent, 117 AD
The Iberian Union in 1598, under Philip II, King of Spain and Portugal
Map of the British Empire (as of 1910). At its height, it was the largest empire in history.
The Soviet Union and the United States dominated world affairs during the Cold War
A pie chart showing global military expenditures by country for 2019, in US$ billions, according to SIPRI.
NATO countries account for over 70% of global military expenditure, with the United States alone accounting for 43% of global military expenditure in 2009.
Antonio Gramsci (1891–1937), the theoretician of cultural hegemony

In the early 20th century, in the field of international relations, the Italian Marxist philosopher Antonio Gramsci developed the theory of cultural domination (an analysis of economic class) to include social class; hence, the philosophic and sociologic theory of cultural hegemony analysed the social norms that established the social structures (social and economic classes) with which the ruling class establish and exert cultural dominance to impose their Weltanschauung (world view)—justifying the social, political, and economic status quo—as natural, inevitable, and beneficial to every social class, rather than as artificial social constructs beneficial solely to the ruling class.