International relations

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The field of international relations dates from the time of the Greek historian Thucydides.
The official portraits of King Władysław IV dressed according to French, Spanish and Polish fashion reflects the complex politics of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth during the Thirty Years' War.
Empires of the world in 1910
NATO International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan
The United Nations Secretariat Building at the United Nations headquarters in New York City
The World Bank headquarters in Washington, D.C.
NATO E-3A flying with USAF F-16s in a NATO exercise

Scientific study of interactions between sovereign states.

- International relations
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The United Nations, with its headquarters in New York City, is the largest international diplomatic organization.

Diplomacy

Diplomacy comprises spoken or written speech acts by representatives of states (such as leaders and diplomats) intended to influence events in the international system.

Diplomacy comprises spoken or written speech acts by representatives of states (such as leaders and diplomats) intended to influence events in the international system.

The United Nations, with its headquarters in New York City, is the largest international diplomatic organization.
Ger van Elk, Symmetry of Diplomacy, 1975, Groninger Museum.
The Egyptian–Hittite peace treaty, between the New Kingdom of ancient Egypt and the Hittite Empire of Anatolia
stone tablet fragments
A French ambassador in Ottoman dress, painted by Antoine de Favray, 1766, Pera Museum, Istanbul.
Portraits of Periodical Offering, a 6th-century Chinese painting portraying various emissaries; ambassadors depicted in the painting ranging from those of Hephthalites, Persia to Langkasuka, Baekje(part of the modern Korea), Qiuci, and Wo (Japan).
India's Diplomatic Personnel
Omurtag, ruler of Bulgaria, sends delegation to Byzantine emperor Michael II (Madrid Skylitzes, Biblioteca Nacional de España, Madrid).
French diplomat Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord is considered one of the most skilled diplomats of all time.
The First Geneva Convention (1864). Geneva (Switzerland) is the city that hosts the highest number of international organizations in the world.
Frontispiece of the Acts of the Congress of Vienna.
Brazilian President Prudente de Morais shakes hands with King Carlos I of Portugal during the re-establishment of diplomatic relations between Brazil and Portugal after talks mediated by Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, 16 March 1895.
Anton von Werner, Congress of Berlin (1881): Final meeting at the Reich Chancellery on 13 July 1878.
Celebrating the signing of the Camp David Accords: Menachem Begin, Jimmy Carter, Anwar El Sadat
Czech (originally Czechoslovak) Embassy in Berlin.
The ministers of foreign affairs of the United States, the United Kingdom, Russia, Germany, France, China, the European Union and Iran negotiating in Lausanne for a Comprehensive agreement on the Iranian nuclear programme (30 March 2015).
The Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation at 53/2 Ostozhenka Street in Moscow.

International treaties, agreements, alliances, and other manifestations of international relations are usually the result of diplomatic negotiations and processes.

League of Nations

The first worldwide intergovernmental organisation whose principal mission was to maintain world peace.

The first worldwide intergovernmental organisation whose principal mission was to maintain world peace.

Anachronous world map showing member states of the League during its 26-year history.
The 1864 Geneva Convention, one of the earliest formulations of international law
The League to Enforce Peace published this full-page promotion in The New York Times on Christmas Day 1918. It resolved that the League "should ensure peace by eliminating causes of dissension, by deciding controversies by peaceable means, and by uniting the potential force of all the members as a standing menace against any nation that seeks to upset the peace of the world".
On his December 1918 trip to Europe, Woodrow Wilson gave speeches that "reaffirmed that the making of peace and the creation of a League of Nations must be accomplished as one single objective".
In 1924, the headquarters of the League was named "Palais Wilson", after Woodrow Wilson, who was credited as the "Founder of the League of Nations"
League of Nations Organisation chart
Palace of Nations, Geneva, the League's headquarters from 1936 until its dissolution in 1946
Child labour in a coal mine, United States, c. 1912
Child labour in Kamerun in 1919
A sample Nansen passport
A map of the world in 1920–45, which shows the League of Nations members during its history
Chinese delegate addresses the League of Nations concerning the Manchurian Crisis in 1932.
Emperor Haile Selassie I going into exile in Bath, England via Jerusalem
The Gap in the Bridge; the sign reads "This League of Nations Bridge was designed by the President of the U.S.A."
Cartoon from Punch magazine, 10 December 1920, satirising the gap left by the US not joining the League.
World map showing member states of the League of Nations (in green and red) on 18 April 1946, when the League of Nations ceased to exist.
League of Nations archives, Geneva.

Another important weakness grew from the contradiction between the idea of collective security that formed the basis of the League and international relations between individual states.

The historic town hall of Münster where the treaty was signed

Peace of Westphalia

Collective name for two peace treaties signed in October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück and Münster.

Collective name for two peace treaties signed in October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück and Münster.

The historic town hall of Münster where the treaty was signed
Dutch envoy Adriaan Pauw enters Münster around 1646 for the peace negotiations
Sebastian Dadler undated medal (1648), Christina of Sweden, portrait with feathered helmet right. Obverse
The reverse of this medal: Christina of Sweden as Minerva holding an olive branch in her left arm and grasping the tree of knowledge with her right hand.
A map showing European borders in 1648
The Holy Roman Empire in 1648
Allegory of the Peace of Westphalia, by Jacob Jordaens.

Scholars of international relations have identified the Peace of Westphalia as the origin of principles crucial to modern international relations, collectively known as Westphalian sovereignty, though other historians argue that this is largely a myth invented after the fact.

Early censuses and surveys provided demographic data.

Social science

One of the branches of science, devoted to the study of societies and the relationships among individuals within those societies.

One of the branches of science, devoted to the study of societies and the relationships among individuals within those societies.

Early censuses and surveys provided demographic data.
Buyers bargain for good prices while sellers put forth their best front in Chichicastenango Market, Guatemala.
A depiction of world's oldest university, the University of Bologna, in Italy
Map of the Earth
A trial at a criminal court, the Old Bailey in London
Ferdinand de Saussure, recognized as the father of modern linguistics
Aristotle asserted that man is a political animal in his Politics.
Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt was the founder of experimental psychology.
Émile Durkheim is considered one of the founding fathers of sociology.

International relations

The 13th century world-system, as described by Janet Abu-Lughod

Globalization

Process of interaction and integration among people, companies, and governments worldwide.

Process of interaction and integration among people, companies, and governments worldwide.

The 13th century world-system, as described by Janet Abu-Lughod
Portuguese carrack in Nagasaki, 17th-century Japanese Nanban art
The Silk Road in the 1st century
Native New World crops exchanged globally: Maize, tomato, potato, vanilla, rubber, cacao, tobacco
Lisbon in the 1570s had many Africans
The 1843 launch of the Great Britain, the revolutionary ship of Isambard Kingdom Brunel
During the 19th and early 20th centuries, the United Kingdom was a global superpower.
D.H. Comet, the world's first commercial jet airliner, entered service in 1949
With a population of 1.4 billion, China is the world's second-largest economy.
Singapore is the top country in the Enabling Trade Index.
U.S. Trade Balance and Trade Policy (1895–2015)
Dividends worth CZK 289 billion were paid to the foreign owners of Czech companies in 2016.
Shakira, a Colombian multilingual singer-songwriter, playing outside her home country
McDonald's is commonly seen as a symbol of Globalization, often called McDonaldization of global society
Use of chili pepper has spread from the Americas to cuisines around the world, including Thailand, Korea, China, and Italy.
The United Nations Headquarters in New York City
U.S. military presence around the world in 2007., the U.S. still had many bases and troops stationed globally.
From the documentary Ukraine Is Not a Brothel. Radical group Femen protest against the increase in sex tourism into Ukraine.
Scheduled airline traffic in 2009
2010 London Youth Games opening ceremony. About 69% of children born in London in 2015 had at least one parent who was born abroad.
The global digital divide: Computers per 100 people
The European Union–Mercosur free trade agreement, which would form one of the world's largest free trade areas, has been denounced by environmental activists and indigenous rights campaigners.
Hu Jintao of China and George W. Bush meet while attending an APEC summit in Santiago de Chile, 2004
As of 2017, there were 2,754 U.S. dollar billionaires worldwide, with a combined wealth of over US$9.2trillion.
Of the factors influencing the duration of economic growth in both developed and developing countries, income equality has a more beneficial impact than trade openness, sound political institutions, and foreign investment.
Worlds regions by total wealth (in trillions USD), 2018
Barack Obama and Dmitry Medvedev after signing the New START treaty in Prague, 2010
Anti-TTIP demonstration in Hannover, Germany, 2016
World Bank Protester, Jakarta, Indonesia
Differences in national income equality around the world as measured by the national Gini coefficient, as of 2018.
Countries by total wealth (trillions USD), Credit Suisse
Global share of wealth by wealth group, Credit Suisse, 2017
Immigrant rights march for amnesty, Los Angeles, on May Day, 2006
Deforestation of the Madagascar Highland Plateau has led to extensive siltation and unstable flows of western rivers.
a shows carbon footprint (CF) hotspots of foreign final consumption in China. b–d show carbon footprint hotspots of the consumption of the United States, Hong Kong, and Japan, respectively. Among all foreign regions, the United States, Hong Kong, and Japan have the largest CFs in China, contributing ~23.0%, 10.8%, and 9.0%, respectively, to the total foreign CF in China in 2012.

They note the term was used "in education to describe the global life of the mind"; in international relations to describe the extension of the European Common Market, and in journalism to describe how the "American Negro and his problem are taking on a global significance".

Samuel P. Huntington

American political scientist, adviser, and academic.

American political scientist, adviser, and academic.

Map of the nine "civilizations" from Huntington's "Clash of Civilizations"

In 1993, Huntington provoked great debate among international relations theorists with the interrogatively titled "The Clash of Civilizations?", an influential, oft-cited article published in Foreign Affairs magazine.

A Ukrainian begins the first cut on a Kh-22 air-to-surface missile during elimination activities at an air base in Ozernoye, Ukraine. The weapon was eliminated under the Cooperative Threat Reduction program implemented by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency. (DTRA photo, March 2004)

International security

Term which refers to the measures taken by states and international organizations, such as the United Nations, European Union, and others, to ensure mutual survival and safety.

Term which refers to the measures taken by states and international organizations, such as the United Nations, European Union, and others, to ensure mutual survival and safety.

A Ukrainian begins the first cut on a Kh-22 air-to-surface missile during elimination activities at an air base in Ozernoye, Ukraine. The weapon was eliminated under the Cooperative Threat Reduction program implemented by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency. (DTRA photo, March 2004)

It began as an independent field of study, but was absorbed as a sub-field of international relations.

Chronology of the universe as deduced by the prevailing Big Bang theory, a result from science and obtained knowledge

Helen Milner

American political scientist and the B. C. Forbes Professor of Public Affairs at the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University, where she is also the Director of the Niehaus Center for Globalization and Governance.

American political scientist and the B. C. Forbes Professor of Public Affairs at the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University, where she is also the Director of the Niehaus Center for Globalization and Governance.

Chronology of the universe as deduced by the prevailing Big Bang theory, a result from science and obtained knowledge

She graduated with honors in international relations at Stanford University in 1980 and obtained her Ph.D in Political Science at Harvard University in 1986.

Committee on International Relations (University of Chicago)

One-year master's degree graduate program in the Division of Social Sciences at the University of Chicago.

One-year master's degree graduate program in the Division of Social Sciences at the University of Chicago.

It is one of the oldest international relations graduate program in the United States.

Herodotus (c. 484 BC–c. 425 BC), often considered the "father of history" in the Western world

History

Study and the documentation of the past.

Study and the documentation of the past.

Herodotus (c. 484 BC–c. 425 BC), often considered the "father of history" in the Western world
History by Frederick Dielman (1896)
The title page to The Historians' History of the World
The title page to La Historia d'Italia
Benedetto Croce
Ban Zhao, courtesy name Huiban, was the first known female Chinese historian.
History books in a bookstore

This type of political history is the study of the conduct of international relations between states or across state boundaries over time.