International relations of the Great Powers (1814–1919)

International relations (1814–1919)Great Powersinternational events1815-1914empiresEuropean diplomacyEuropean Great PowersEuropean powersGreat PowerInternational Relations
This article covers worldwide diplomacy and, more generally, the international relations of the major powers from 1814 to 1919.wikipedia
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Diplomatic history of World War I

World War Idiplomatic efforts surrounding World War IDiplomatic history of the First World War
This era covers the period from the end of the Napoleonic Wars and the Congress of Vienna (1814–15), to the end of the First World War and the Paris Peace Conference.
For a longer-term perspective see International relations of the Great Powers (1814–1919) and Causes of World War I.

International relations, 1648–1814

International relations 1648-1814International relations 1648–1814
For the previous era see International relations, 1648–1814.
It is followed by International relations of the Great Powers (1814–1919).

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland

United KingdomBritishUK
Italy was added to this group after its unification and on the eve of the First World War there were two major blocs in Europe: the Triple Entente formed by France, Britain and Russia and the Triple Alliance formed by Germany, Italy and Austria-Hungary.
The Crimean War with Russia was a relatively small operation in a century where Britain was largely at peace with the Great Powers.

International relations (1919–1939)

interwar diplomatic history
For the 1920s and 1930s see International relations (1919–1939).

Imperialism

imperialistimperialisticimperial
This led to imperialist and colonialist competitions for influence and power throughout the world, most famously the Scramble for Africa in the 1880s and 1890s.

Paris Peace Conference, 1919

Paris Peace ConferenceVersailles Peace Conference1919 Paris Peace Conference
This era covers the period from the end of the Napoleonic Wars and the Congress of Vienna (1814–15), to the end of the First World War and the Paris Peace Conference.

Congress of Vienna

Vienna CongressTreaty of ViennaFinal Act of the Congress of Vienna
This era covers the period from the end of the Napoleonic Wars and the Congress of Vienna (1814–15), to the end of the First World War and the Paris Peace Conference.

Colonialism

colonialcolonial powerscolonialist
This led to imperialist and colonialist competitions for influence and power throughout the world, most famously the Scramble for Africa in the 1880s and 1890s.

Scramble for Africa

Partition of AfricaEuropean colonizationEuropean colonization of Africa
This led to imperialist and colonialist competitions for influence and power throughout the world, most famously the Scramble for Africa in the 1880s and 1890s.

Triple Entente

EntenteEntente PowersAllies
Italy was added to this group after its unification and on the eve of the First World War there were two major blocs in Europe: the Triple Entente formed by France, Britain and Russia and the Triple Alliance formed by Germany, Italy and Austria-Hungary.

Concert of Europe

RestorationEuropean RestorationGreat Powers
Under the Concert of Europe (or "Congress system"), the major European powers—Britain, Russia, Prussia, Austria, and (after 1818) France—pledged to meet regularly to resolve differences.

Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle (1818)

Congress of Aix-la-Chapellethird congressTreaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
The Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle (1818) ended the military occupation of France and adjusted downward the 700 million francs the French were obligated to pay as reparations.
* International relations of the Great Powers (1814–1919)

Crimean War

CrimeaCrimea WarCrimean
The Crimean War (1853–1856) was the most important war, especially because it disrupted the stability of the system.

Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury

Lord SalisburyThe Marquess of SalisburyMarquess of Salisbury
In the 1880s and 1890s Lord Salisbury contemplated an orderly dismemberment of it, in such a way as to reduce rivalry between the greater powers.

Pax Britannica

a period of relative peaceacted as the world's policemanforemost power
Pax Britannica (Latin for "British Peace", modelled after Pax Romana) was the period of relative peace between the Great Powers during which the British Empire became the global hegemonic power and adopted the role of a "global policeman".

Romania

ROURomanianRomânia
The Serbian and Greek armies repulsed the Bulgarian offensive and counter-attacked into Bulgaria, while Romania and the Ottoman Empire also attacked Bulgaria and gained (or regained) territory.
The Treaty of Paris put the Danubian Principalities under the collective guardianship of the Great Powers in 1856.

New Imperialism

neo-imperialismimperialismcolonialists
The new wave of imperialism reflected ongoing rivalries among the great powers, the economic desire for new resources and markets, and a "civilizing mission" ethos.

Diplomacy of the American Civil War

American Civil War
This period was a particularly eventful one in the world outside Britain, seeing the Unification of Italy, the American Civil War, and the 1864 war over Schleswig-Holstein between Denmark and the German states.

Confederate States of America

ConfederateConfederacyConfederate States
During the American Civil War (1861–1865), the Southern slave states attempted to secede from the Union and set up an independent country, the Confederate States of America.

List of modern great powers

great powersconsiderable power
In 1815-1914 the Pax Britannica the Empire was the most powerful unitary authority in history due to the unprecedented level of naval predominance of the History of the Royal Navy/

Splendid isolation

formed no permanent military alliances
Britain had entered an era of "splendid isolation", avoiding entanglements that had led it into the unhappy Crimean War in 1854–1856.

Franco-Prussian War

Franco-German WarWar of 1870Franco Prussian War
Emperor Napoleon III of France could not tolerate the rapid rise of Prussia, and started the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71 over perceived insults and other trivialities.

Capture of Rome

captured Romeentered RomeBreach of Porta Pia
France had long stationed an army in Rome to protect the pope; it recalled the soldiers in 1870, and the Kingdom of Italy moved in, seized the remaining papal territories, and made Rome its capital city in 1871 ending the risorgimento.

French–German enmity

ErbfeindFranco-German enmitydisputed
Bismarck's main mistake was giving in to the Army and to intense public demand in Germany for acquisition of the border provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, thereby turning France into a permanent, deeply-committed enemy (see French–German enmity).

League of the Three Emperors

League of Three EmperorsThree Emperors' LeagueAlliance of the Three Emperors
A key element was the League of the Three Emperors, in which Bismarck brought together rulers in Berlin, Vienna and St. Petersburg to guarantee each other's security, while blocking out France; it lasted 1881–1887.
* International relations (1814–1919)