International status and usage of the euro

Currencies related to the euroadopteddependent territories of EU member states not part of the EUdoes not mint iteuroisationeuroisedfour European microstatesmonetary agreements with EUsix other European countriesthrough monetary agreements with the EU
[[Image:DOLLAR AND EURO IN THE WORLD.svg|400px|thumb|Worldwide use of the euro and US dollar:wikipedia
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Euro

EUReuros
When the euro formally replaced 12 currencies on 1 January 2002, it inherited their use in territories such as Montenegro and replaced minor currencies tied to the pre-euro currencies, such as in Monaco.
The currency is also used officially by the institutions of the European Union, by four European microstates that are not EU members, as well as unilaterally by Montenegro and Kosovo.

Microstates and the European Union

European microstatesEU's relations with the sovereign European microstatesEU relationships with Europe's Microstates
Several European microstates outside the EU have adopted the euro as their currency.
Andorra, Monaco, San Marino, and the Vatican City use the euro through monetary agreements with the EU, and have been granted the right to issue a limited number of euro coins.

Eurozone

euro areaeuro zoneeurozone Member States
Four small states have been given a formal right to use the euro, and to mint their own coins, but all other usage has been unofficial outside the eurozone (the EU states who have adopted the euro).
Five of the dependent territories of EU member states not part of the EU, have adopted the euro:

Yugoslav dinar

dinarsYUDdinar
Montenegro and Kosovo have also used the euro since its launch, as they previously used the German mark rather than the Yugoslav dinar.
(This federation split in 2006 and Montenegro currently uses the Euro as its currency, though it does not mint it.)

Currency board

currency board systemcurrency-boardpegged
The Bulgarian lev is pegged to the euro through a currency board.
For complete listing, see currencies related to the euro

Cape Verdean escudo

CVEescudoCape Verde
Currencies related to the euro

Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark

BAMKMconvertible mark
Convertible mark is the currency of Bosnia and Herzegovina and it was fixed to 1 German mark when it was introduced on the basis of the Dayton agreement; consequently after introduction of the euro, the Convertible mark uses the German-mark-to-euro rate at 1.95583 BAM per euro.
Currencies related to the euro

Comorian franc

KMFComorianFranc
Currencies related to the euro

CFP franc

FrancCFPComptoirs Francais du Pacifique franc
Currencies related to the euro

International use of the U.S. dollar

use it as their official currencyothersU.S. Dollar as a global currency
International use of the US dollar
International status and usage of the euro

European Central Bank

ECBThe European Central Bankmonetary policy
With or without an agreement these countries, unlike those in the eurozone, do not participate in the European Central Bank or the Eurogroup.

Eurogroup

Chairman of the EurogroupEurogroup presidentPresident of the Euro Group
With or without an agreement these countries, unlike those in the eurozone, do not participate in the European Central Bank or the Eurogroup.

United States dollar

$US$USD
Its international usage has also grown as a trading currency, acting as an economic or political alternative to using the United States dollar.

Reserve currency

reserve currenciesforeign currency reservesanchor currency
Its increasing usage in this sense has led to its becoming the only significant challenger to the US dollar as the world's main reserve currency.

Obverse and reverse

obversereverseobverses
Prior to the launch of the euro, agreements were reached with Monaco, San Marino, and Vatican City by EU member states (Italy in the case of San Marino and Vatican City, and France in the case of Monaco) allowing them to use the euro and mint a limited amount of euro coins (with their own national symbols on the obverse side) to be valid throughout the Eurozone.

Italian lira

lireItalian lirelira
The Vatican and San Marino had their currencies pegged to the Italian lira (Vatican and Sammarinese lira) and Monaco used the Monegasque franc, which was pegged to the French franc.

Vatican lira

Vatican
The Vatican and San Marino had their currencies pegged to the Italian lira (Vatican and Sammarinese lira) and Monaco used the Monegasque franc, which was pegged to the French franc.

Sammarinese lira

Sammarinese
The Vatican and San Marino had their currencies pegged to the Italian lira (Vatican and Sammarinese lira) and Monaco used the Monegasque franc, which was pegged to the French franc.

Monégasque franc

francfrancs
The Vatican and San Marino had their currencies pegged to the Italian lira (Vatican and Sammarinese lira) and Monaco used the Monegasque franc, which was pegged to the French franc.

French franc

francsfranc
The Vatican and San Marino had their currencies pegged to the Italian lira (Vatican and Sammarinese lira) and Monaco used the Monegasque franc, which was pegged to the French franc. Prior to 2002, it used both the French franc and Spanish peseta as de facto legal tender currencies, though they never had an official monetary arrangement with either country, and switched to the euro (without any monetary agreement) when it was introduced on 1 January 2002.

Andorra–European Union relations

AndorraAndorra–EU relationsNo
A similar agreement was negotiated with Andorra and came into force on 1 April 2012.

Spanish peseta

pesetaspesetaESP
Prior to 2002, it used both the French franc and Spanish peseta as de facto legal tender currencies, though they never had an official monetary arrangement with either country, and switched to the euro (without any monetary agreement) when it was introduced on 1 January 2002.

Andorra and the euro

Andorraeuro coinsits own euro coins
After years of negotiations, partially over concerns with banking secrecy, the EU and Andorra signed a monetary agreement on 30 June 2011 which made the euro the official currency in Andorra and allowed them to mint their own euro coins as early as 1 July 2013, provided they comply with the agreement's terms.

Overseas France

overseas departments and territoriesoverseas departments and territories of Francesui generis'' collectivity
Outside the EU, there are currently three French territories and a British territory that have agreements to use the euro as their currency.