International use of the U.S. dollar

use it as their official currencyothersU.S. Dollar as a global currency
[[File:DOLLAR AND EURO IN THE WORLD.svg|right|300px|thumb|Worldwide use of the U.S. dollar:wikipedia
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United States dollar

$US$USD
Besides being the main currency of the United States, the American dollar is used as the standard unit of currency in international markets for commodities such as gold and petroleum (the latter, sometimes called petrocurrency, is the source of the term petrodollar).
Several countries use it as their official currency, and in many others it is the de facto currency.

Chinese-issued U.S. dollar bonds

U.S dollar-denominated bond issued by Chinese institutions has also been referred to as 'Kungfu bonds', a name born out of a consultation with more than 400 market participants across Asia by Bloomberg L.P..
U.S dollar-denominated bonds issued by Chinese institutions have been referred to as 'Kungfu bonds', a term born out of a consultation with more than 400 market participants across Asia by Bloomberg L.P.

International status and usage of the euro

Currencies related to the euroadopteddependent territories of EU member states not part of the EU
International status and usage of the euro
International use of the US dollar

Euro

€EUReuros
Worldwide use of the euro: All holdings of U.S.-dollar bank deposits held by non-residents of the United States are known as "eurodollars" (not to be confused with the euro), regardless of the location of the bank holding the deposit (which may be inside or outside the U.S.).

Belarusian ruble

BYRBYNrubles
Note that the Belarusian ruble is pegged to the euro, Russian ruble, and U.S.

United States

American🇺🇸U.S.
Besides being the main currency of the United States, the American dollar is used as the standard unit of currency in international markets for commodities such as gold and petroleum (the latter, sometimes called petrocurrency, is the source of the term petrodollar).

Petroleum

crude oiloilcrude
Besides being the main currency of the United States, the American dollar is used as the standard unit of currency in international markets for commodities such as gold and petroleum (the latter, sometimes called petrocurrency, is the source of the term petrodollar).

Petrocurrency

petrodollarpetroeuro
Besides being the main currency of the United States, the American dollar is used as the standard unit of currency in international markets for commodities such as gold and petroleum (the latter, sometimes called petrocurrency, is the source of the term petrodollar).

Petrodollar recycling

petrodollarpetrodollarspetro-dollar
Besides being the main currency of the United States, the American dollar is used as the standard unit of currency in international markets for commodities such as gold and petroleum (the latter, sometimes called petrocurrency, is the source of the term petrodollar).

Airbus

EADSAirbus GroupEuropean Aeronautic Defence and Space Company
Some non-U.S. companies dealing in globalized markets, such as Airbus, list their prices in dollars.

Reserve currency

reserve currenciesforeign currency reservesanchor currency
The U.S. dollar is the world's foremost reserve currency.

Banknote

paper moneybanknotespaper currency
In addition to holdings by central banks and other institutions, there are many private holdings, which are believed to be mostly in one-hundred-dollar banknotes (indeed, most American banknotes actually are held outside the United States).

Eurodollar

Eurodollar depositeurodollarsdollar deposits
All holdings of U.S.-dollar bank deposits held by non-residents of the United States are known as "eurodollars" (not to be confused with the euro), regardless of the location of the bank holding the deposit (which may be inside or outside the U.S.).

Paul Samuelson

SamuelsonPaul A. SamuelsonSamuelson, Paul A.
Economist Paul Samuelson and others (including, at his death, Milton Friedman) have maintained that the overseas demand for dollars allows the United States to maintain persistent trade deficits without causing the value of the currency to depreciate or the flow of trade to readjust.

Milton Friedman

FriedmanFriedman, MiltonMilton
Economist Paul Samuelson and others (including, at his death, Milton Friedman) have maintained that the overseas demand for dollars allows the United States to maintain persistent trade deficits without causing the value of the currency to depreciate or the flow of trade to readjust.

Balance of trade

trade deficittrade surplustrade balance
Economist Paul Samuelson and others (including, at his death, Milton Friedman) have maintained that the overseas demand for dollars allows the United States to maintain persistent trade deficits without causing the value of the currency to depreciate or the flow of trade to readjust.

Deutsche Mark

DMmarksmark
The euro inherited this status from the German mark, and since its introduction, has increased its standing considerably, mostly at the expense of the dollar.

Federal Reserve

FedFederal Reserve SystemFederal Reserve Banks
Former Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan said in September 2007 that the euro could replace the U.S. dollar as the world's primary reserve currency.

Alan Greenspan

Greenspanformer Fed Chairman Alan Greenspan
Former Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan said in September 2007 that the euro could replace the U.S. dollar as the world's primary reserve currency.

New York Board of Trade

New York Futures ExchangeCoffee ExchangeFINEX
The U.S. Dollar Index (Ticker: USDX) is the creation of the New York Board of Trade (NYBOT), renamed in September 2007 to ICE Futures US. It was established in 1973 for tracking the value of the USD against a basket of currencies, which, at that time, represented the largest trading partners of the United States.

Currency basket

basket of currenciesbasket index ofbasket of other currencies
The U.S. Dollar Index (Ticker: USDX) is the creation of the New York Board of Trade (NYBOT), renamed in September 2007 to ICE Futures US. It was established in 1973 for tracking the value of the USD against a basket of currencies, which, at that time, represented the largest trading partners of the United States.

Smithsonian Agreement

G-10 Smithsonian Agreementmonetary systemSmithsonian
This event marks the watershed between the wider margins arrangement of the Smithsonian regime and the period of generalized floating that led up to the Second Amendment of the Articles of Agreement of the International Monetary Fund.

International Monetary Fund

IMFInternational Monetary Fund (IMF)the International Monetary Fund
This event marks the watershed between the wider margins arrangement of the Smithsonian regime and the period of generalized floating that led up to the Second Amendment of the Articles of Agreement of the International Monetary Fund.

Deindustrialization

industrial declinedeindustrialisationde-industrialization
The USDX has not been updated to reflect new trading realities in the global economy, where the bulk of trade has shifted strongly towards new partners like China and Mexico and oil-exporting countries while the United States has de-industrialized.

Japanese yen

ÂĄyenJPY
As investors sought out safe-haven investments in U.S. treasuries and Japanese government bonds from the financial turmoil, the Japanese yen and United States dollar sharply rose against other currencies, including the euro.