Internet

The Internet Messenger by Buky Schwartz, located in Holon, Israel
T3 NSFNET Backbone, c. 1992.
ICANN headquarters in the Playa Vista neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, United States.
2007 map showing submarine fiberoptic telecommunication cables around the world.
Packet routing across the Internet involves several tiers of Internet service providers.
Number of mobile cellular subscriptions 2012–2016
As user data is processed through the protocol stack, each abstraction layer adds encapsulation information at the sending host. Data is transmitted over the wire at the link level between hosts and routers. Encapsulation is removed by the receiving host. Intermediate relays update link encapsulation at each hop, and inspect the IP layer for routing purposes.
Conceptual data flow in a simple network topology of two hosts (A and B) connected by a link between their respective routers. The application on each host executes read and write operations as if the processes were directly connected to each other by some kind of data pipe. After the establishment of this pipe, most details of the communication are hidden from each process, as the underlying principles of communication are implemented in the lower protocol layers. In analogy, at the transport layer the communication appears as host-to-host, without knowledge of the application data structures and the connecting routers, while at the internetworking layer, individual network boundaries are traversed at each router.
A DNS resolver consults three name servers to resolve the domain name user-visible "www.wikipedia.org" to determine the IPV4 Address 207.142.131.234
Creating a subnet by dividing the host identifier
This NeXT Computer was used by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN and became the world's first Web server.
Share of population using the Internet. See or edit source data.
Internet users per 100 population members and GDP per capita for selected countries.
Internet users per 100 inhabitants Source: International Telecommunication Union.
Internet users in 2015 as a percentage of a country's population Source: International Telecommunication Union.
'''Fixed broadband Internet subscriptions in 2012
as a percentage of a country's population''' Source: International Telecommunication Union.
'''Mobile broadband Internet subscriptions in 2012
as a percentage of a country's population''' Source: International Telecommunication Union.
Banner in Bangkok during the 2014 Thai coup d'état, informing the Thai public that 'like' or 'share' activities on social media could result in imprisonment (observed 30 June 2014).
Internet users by language<ref name=NIUBL-IWS>{{cite web|url=http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm|title=Number of Internet Users by Language|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120426122721/http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm|archive-date=26 April 2012|website=Internet World Stats, Miniwatts Marketing Group|date=31 May 2011|access-date=22 April 2012}}</ref>
Website content languages<ref name=UofCLBWApril2013>{{cite web|title=Usage of content languages for websites|url=http://w3techs.com/technologies/overview/content_language/all|work=W3Techs.com|access-date=26 April 2013|archive-url=https://www.webcitation.org/66ZQzUXh6?url=http://w3techs.com/technologies/overview/content_language/all|archive-date=31 March 2012|url-status=live}}</ref>

Global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices.

- Internet
The Internet Messenger by Buky Schwartz, located in Holon, Israel

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Sales from the online iTunes music store, operated by Apple Inc.

Digital music store

For a store that sells musical instruments and related equipment online, see Music store: Online stores

For a store that sells musical instruments and related equipment online, see Music store: Online stores

Sales from the online iTunes music store, operated by Apple Inc.

A digital music store is a business that sells digital audio files of music recordings over the Internet.

Hard drives store information in binary form and so are considered a type of physical digital media.

Streaming television

Hard drives store information in binary form and so are considered a type of physical digital media.

Streaming television is the digital distribution of television content, such as TV shows, as streaming media delivered over the Internet.

Diagram of the first internetworked connection

Internet protocol suite

Diagram of the first internetworked connection
An SRI International Packet Radio Van, used for the first three-way internetworked transmission.
Conceptual data flow in a simple network topology of two hosts (A and B) connected by a link between their respective routers. The application on each host executes read and write operations as if the processes were directly connected to each other by some kind of data pipe. After establishment of this pipe, most details of the communication are hidden from each process, as the underlying principles of communication are implemented in the lower protocol layers. In analogy, at the transport layer the communication appears as host-to-host, without knowledge of the application data structures and the connecting routers, while at the internetworking layer, individual network boundaries are traversed at each router.
Encapsulation of application data descending through the layers described in RFC 1122

The Internet protocol suite, commonly known as TCP/IP, is the set of communications protocols used in the Internet and similar computer networks.

Michael Aldrich, pioneer of online shopping in the 1980s.

Online shopping

Michael Aldrich, pioneer of online shopping in the 1980s.
Foodora's home delivery by bicycle in Tampere, Finland
An automated online assistant, with potential to enhance user interface on shopping sites.

Online shopping is a form of electronic commerce which allows consumers to directly buy goods or services from a seller over the Internet using a web browser or a mobile app.

Bricks and mortar retail shops on Marylebone High Street, London

Brick and mortar

Organization or business in a building or other structure.

Organization or business in a building or other structure.

Bricks and mortar retail shops on Marylebone High Street, London
The Galanterie-, Kurz- und Spielwaren-Laden store in Uetersen, Germany in 1901
A fruit stand at a village market in Afghanistan.
Bricks and mortar retail shops along the Fredrikinkatu street in the center of Helsinki, Finland

This term is usually used to contrast with a transitory business or an Internet-only presence, such as fully online shops, which have no physical presence for shoppers to visit, talk with staff in person, touch and handle products and buy from the firm in person.

A human computer, with microscope and calculator, 1952

Computer

Digital electronic machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically.

Digital electronic machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically.

A human computer, with microscope and calculator, 1952
The Ishango bone, a bone tool dating back to prehistoric Africa.
The Chinese suanpan (算盘). The number represented on this abacus is 6,302,715,408.
The Antikythera mechanism, dating back to ancient Greece circa 150&ndash;100 BC, is an early analog computing device.
A slide rule.
A portion of Babbage's Difference engine.
Sir William Thomson's third tide-predicting machine design, 1879–81
Replica of Konrad Zuse's Z3, the first fully automatic, digital (electromechanical) computer.
Colossus, the first electronic digital programmable computing device, was used to break German ciphers during World War II. It is seen here in use at Bletchley Park in 1943.
ENIAC was the first electronic, Turing-complete device, and performed ballistics trajectory calculations for the United States Army.
A section of the Manchester Baby, the first electronic stored-program computer
Bipolar junction transistor (BJT)
MOSFET (MOS transistor), showing gate (G), body (B), source (S) and drain (D) terminals. The gate is separated from the body by an insulating layer (pink).
Diagram showing how a particular MIPS architecture instruction would be decoded by the control system
Magnetic-core memory (using magnetic cores) was the computer memory of choice in the 1960s, until it was replaced by semiconductor memory (using MOS memory cells).
Hard disk drives are common storage devices used with computers.
Cray designed many supercomputers that used multiprocessing heavily.
Replica of the Manchester Baby, the world's first electronic stored-program computer, at the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester, England
A 1970s punched card containing one line from a Fortran program. The card reads: "Z(1) = Y + W(1)" and is labeled "PROJ039" for identification purposes.
The actual first computer bug, a moth found trapped on a relay of the Harvard Mark II computer
Visualization of a portion of the routes on the Internet

Computers power the Internet, which links billions of other computers and users.

The hierarchical Domain Name System for class Internet, organized into zones, each served by a name server

Domain Name System

The hierarchical Domain Name System for class Internet, organized into zones, each served by a name server
A DNS resolver that implements the iterative approach mandated by RFC 1034; in this case, the resolver consults three name servers to resolve the fully qualified domain name "www.wikipedia.org".
DNS resolution sequence

The Domain Name System (DNS) is the hierarchical and decentralized naming system used to identify computers reachable through the Internet or other Internet Protocol (IP) networks.

Decomposition of an IPv4 address from dot-decimal notation to its binary value

IP address

Numerical label such as that is connected to a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication.

Numerical label such as that is connected to a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication.

Decomposition of an IPv4 address from dot-decimal notation to its binary value
Decomposition of an IPv6 address from hexadecimal representation to its binary value

However, because of the growth of the Internet and the depletion of available IPv4 addresses, a new version of IP (IPv6), using 128 bits for the IP address, was standardized in 1998.

ICANN

ICANN headquarters in the Playa Vista neighborhood of Los Angeles.
ICANN meeting, Los Angeles USA, 2007. The sign refers to Vint Cerf, then chairman of the board of directors, who is working on the so-called Interplanetary Internet.
Governmental Advisory Committee representatives

The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN ) is an American multistakeholder group and nonprofit organization responsible for coordinating the maintenance and procedures of several databases related to the namespaces and numerical spaces of the Internet, ensuring the network's stable and secure operation.

The Wikipedia Village Pump is a forum used to discuss improvements on Wikipedia

Internet forum

Online discussion site where people can hold conversations in the form of posted messages.

Online discussion site where people can hold conversations in the form of posted messages.

The Wikipedia Village Pump is a forum used to discuss improvements on Wikipedia
An Internet forum powered by phpBB
FUDforum, another Internet forum software package
Internet forums are used frequently in conjunction with multiplayer online games.

Forum software packages are widely available on the Internet and are written in a variety of programming languages, such as PHP, Perl, Java and ASP.