A report on Internet

The Internet Messenger by Buky Schwartz, located in Holon, Israel
T3 NSFNET Backbone, c. 1992.
ICANN headquarters in the Playa Vista neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, United States.
2007 map showing submarine fiberoptic telecommunication cables around the world.
Packet routing across the Internet involves several tiers of Internet service providers.
Number of mobile cellular subscriptions 2012–2016
As user data is processed through the protocol stack, each abstraction layer adds encapsulation information at the sending host. Data is transmitted over the wire at the link level between hosts and routers. Encapsulation is removed by the receiving host. Intermediate relays update link encapsulation at each hop, and inspect the IP layer for routing purposes.
Conceptual data flow in a simple network topology of two hosts (A and B) connected by a link between their respective routers. The application on each host executes read and write operations as if the processes were directly connected to each other by some kind of data pipe. After the establishment of this pipe, most details of the communication are hidden from each process, as the underlying principles of communication are implemented in the lower protocol layers. In analogy, at the transport layer the communication appears as host-to-host, without knowledge of the application data structures and the connecting routers, while at the internetworking layer, individual network boundaries are traversed at each router.
A DNS resolver consults three name servers to resolve the domain name user-visible "www.wikipedia.org" to determine the IPV4 Address 207.142.131.234
Creating a subnet by dividing the host identifier
This NeXT Computer was used by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN and became the world's first Web server.
Share of population using the Internet. See or edit source data.
Internet users per 100 population members and GDP per capita for selected countries.
Internet users per 100 inhabitants Source: International Telecommunication Union.
Internet users in 2015 as a percentage of a country's population Source: International Telecommunication Union.
'''Fixed broadband Internet subscriptions in 2012
as a percentage of a country's population''' Source: International Telecommunication Union.
'''Mobile broadband Internet subscriptions in 2012
as a percentage of a country's population''' Source: International Telecommunication Union.
Banner in Bangkok during the 2014 Thai coup d'état, informing the Thai public that 'like' or 'share' activities on social media could result in imprisonment (observed 30 June 2014).
Internet users by language<ref name=NIUBL-IWS>{{cite web|url=http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm|title=Number of Internet Users by Language|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120426122721/http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm|archive-date=26 April 2012|website=Internet World Stats, Miniwatts Marketing Group|date=31 May 2011|access-date=22 April 2012}}</ref>
Website content languages<ref name=UofCLBWApril2013>{{cite web|title=Usage of content languages for websites|url=http://w3techs.com/technologies/overview/content_language/all|work=W3Techs.com|access-date=26 April 2013|archive-url=https://www.webcitation.org/66ZQzUXh6?url=http://w3techs.com/technologies/overview/content_language/all|archive-date=31 March 2012|url-status=live}}</ref>

Global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices.

- Internet
The Internet Messenger by Buky Schwartz, located in Holon, Israel

176 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Network Packet

Computer network

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Set of computers sharing resources located on or provided by network nodes.

Set of computers sharing resources located on or provided by network nodes.

Network Packet
Common network topologies
A sample overlay network
Network links
Fiber optic cables are used to transmit light from one computer/network node to another
2007 map showing submarine optical fiber telecommunication cables around the world.
Computers are very often connected to networks using wireless links
An ATM network interface in the form of an accessory card. A lot of network interfaces are built-in.
A typical home or small office router showing the ADSL telephone line and Ethernet network cable connections
Firewalls
The TCP/IP model and its relation to common protocols used at different layers of the model.
Message flows between two devices (A-B) at the four layers of the TCP/IP model in the presence of a router (R). Red flows are effective communication paths, black paths are across the actual network links.
SONET & SDH
Asynchronous Transfer Mode
Routing calculates good paths through a network for information to take. For example, from node 1 to node 6 the best routes are likely to be 1-8-7-6, 1-8-10-6 or 1-9-10-6, as these are the shortest routes.
Partial map of the Internet, based on the January 15, 2005 data found on opte.org . Each line is drawn between two nodes, representing two IP addresses. The length of the lines is indicative of the delay between those two nodes. This graph represents less than 30% of the Class C networks reachable.

In 1974, Vint Cerf, Yogen Dalal, and Carl Sunshine published the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) specification,, coining the term Internet as a shorthand for internetworking.

ARPANET logical map, March 1977

ARPANET

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The first wide-area packet-switched network with distributed control and one of the first networks to implement the TCP/IP protocol suite.

The first wide-area packet-switched network with distributed control and one of the first networks to implement the TCP/IP protocol suite.

ARPANET logical map, March 1977
ARPANET access points in the 1970s
First ARPANET IMP log: the first message ever sent via the ARPANET, 10:30 pm PST on 29 October 1969 (6:30 UTC on 30 October 1969). This IMP Log excerpt, kept at UCLA, describes setting up a message transmission from the UCLA SDS Sigma 7 Host computer to the SRI SDS 940 Host computer.
ARPA network map 1973
Internetworking demonstration, linking the ARPANET, PRNET, and SATNET in 1977
ARPANET in a broader context

Both technologies became the technical foundation of the Internet.

Diagram of the first internetworked connection

Internet protocol suite

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Diagram of the first internetworked connection
An SRI International Packet Radio Van, used for the first three-way internetworked transmission.
Conceptual data flow in a simple network topology of two hosts (A and B) connected by a link between their respective routers. The application on each host executes read and write operations as if the processes were directly connected to each other by some kind of data pipe. After establishment of this pipe, most details of the communication are hidden from each process, as the underlying principles of communication are implemented in the lower protocol layers. In analogy, at the transport layer the communication appears as host-to-host, without knowledge of the application data structures and the connecting routers, while at the internetworking layer, individual network boundaries are traversed at each router.
Encapsulation of application data descending through the layers described in RFC 1122

The Internet protocol suite, commonly known as TCP/IP, is the set of communication protocols used in the Internet and similar computer networks.

The historic World Wide Web logo, designed by Robert Cailliau.

World Wide Web

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The historic World Wide Web logo, designed by Robert Cailliau.
A web page displayed in a web browser
A global map of the Web Index for countries in 2014
This NeXT Computer was used by Sir Tim Berners-Lee at CERN and became the world's first Web server.
The World Wide Web functions as an application layer protocol that is run "on top of" (figuratively) the Internet, helping to make it more functional. The advent of the Mosaic web browser helped to make the web much more usable, to include the display of images and moving images (GIFs).
Graphic representation of a minute fraction of the WWW, demonstrating hyperlinks
A screenshot of a web page on Wikimedia Commons
Dynamic web page: example of server-side scripting (PHP and MySQL)
The usap.gov website
The inside and front of a Dell PowerEdge web server, a computer designed for rack mounting
Multiple web servers may be used for a high traffic website; here, Dell servers are installed together to be used for the Wikimedia Foundation.
The results of a search for the term "lunar eclipse" in a web-based image search engine

The World Wide Web (WWW), commonly known as the Web, is an information system enabling documents and other web resources to be accessed over the Internet.

Decomposition of an IPv4 address from dot-decimal notation to its binary value

IP address

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Numerical label such as that is connected to a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication.

Numerical label such as that is connected to a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication.

Decomposition of an IPv4 address from dot-decimal notation to its binary value
Decomposition of an IPv6 address from hexadecimal representation to its binary value

However, because of the growth of the Internet and the depletion of available IPv4 addresses, a new version of IP (IPv6), using 128 bits for the IP address, was standardized in 1998.

IBM Simon and charging base (1994)

Smartphone

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Portable computer device that combines mobile telephone and computing functions into one unit.

Portable computer device that combines mobile telephone and computing functions into one unit.

IBM Simon and charging base (1994)
The Nokia 9110 Communicator, opened for access to keyboard
Several BlackBerry smartphones, which were highly popular in the mid-late 2000s
The LG Prada with a large capacitive touchscreen introduced in 2006
The original Apple iPhone; following its introduction the common smartphone form factor shifted to large touchscreen software interfaces without physical keypads
A Meizu MX4 with Flyme OS
The Nokia 9 PureView features a five-lens camera array with Zeiss optics, using a mixture of color and monochrome sensors.
The Huawei P30 features three rear-facing camera lenses with Leica optics.
A Moto G7 Power; its display uses a tall aspect ratio and includes a "notch".
A Samsung Galaxy S20 Plus, featuring a "hole-punch" camera
Mobile/desktop convergence: the Librem 5 smartphone can be used as a basic desktop computer
Smartphone with infrared transmitter on top for use as remote control
"Device options" menu of Samsung Mobile's TouchWiz user interface as of 2013, accessed by holding the power button for a second
The HTC Desire, a 2010 smartphone with optical trackpad and search button.
A smartphone touchscreen
Tooltip in Kiwi Browser, a Google Chromium derirative, reveals the full URL by hovering over the tab list using the stylus on a Samsung Galaxy Note 4.
Optical track pad sensor of an HTC Legend, 2010.
Inserted memory and SIM cards
A high-capacity portable battery charger (power bank).
Several smartphones running Google's Android OS
A Palm Treo 300 smartphone (2002)
A Nokia N70 smartphone (2005) running Symbian OS, which was highly popular in Europe and Asia in the 2000s
Mobile payment system.
A New York City driver holding two phones
A user consulting a mapping app on a phone
A sign along Bellaire Boulevard in Southside Place, Texas (Greater Houston) states that using mobile phones while driving is prohibited from 7:30 am to 9:00 am and from 2:00 pm to 4:15 pm
E-waste in Agbogbloshie

They are distinguished from feature phones by their stronger hardware capabilities and extensive mobile operating systems, which facilitate wider software, internet (including web browsing over mobile broadband), and multimedia functionality (including music, video, cameras, and gaming), alongside core phone functions such as voice calls and text messaging.

Rack containing several enterprise class routers connected to multiple networks

Router (computing)

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Networking device that forwards data packets between computer networks.

Networking device that forwards data packets between computer networks.

Rack containing several enterprise class routers connected to multiple networks
Home and small office wireless router
A typical home or small office DSL router showing the telephone socket (left, white) to connect it to the internet using ADSL, and Ethernet jacks (right, yellow) to connect it to home computers and printers.
A screenshot of the LuCI web interface used by OpenWrt. This page configures Dynamic DNS.
The first ARPANET router, the Interface Message Processor was delivered to UCLA August 30, 1969, and went online October 29, 1969

Routers perform the traffic directing functions on the Internet.

Internetworking

10 links

Practice of interconnecting multiple computer networks, such that any pair of hosts in the connected networks can exchange messages irrespective of their hardware-level networking technology.

Practice of interconnecting multiple computer networks, such that any pair of hosts in the connected networks can exchange messages irrespective of their hardware-level networking technology.

The most notable example of internetworking is the Internet, a network of networks based on many underlying hardware technologies.

IPv6 header

IPv6

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IPv6 header
Glossary of terms used for IPv6 addresses
Decomposition of the dot-decimal IPv4 address representation to its binary value
Multicast structure in IPv6
Several examples of IPv6 extension headers
IPv6 packet header
A general structure for an IPv6 unicast address
The Link-Local Unicast Address structure in IPv6
The global unicast address structure in IPv6
IPv6 Prefix Assignment mechanism with IANA, RIRs, and ISPs
IPv4-compatible IPv6 unicast address
IPv4-mapped IPv6 unicast address
A timeline for the standards governing IPv6
Monthly IPv6 allocations per regional Internet registry (RIR)

Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is the most recent version of the Internet Protocol (IP), the communications protocol that provides an identification and location system for computers on networks and routes traffic across the Internet.

An animation demonstrating datagram type of packet switching across a network

Packet switching

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Method of grouping data into packets that are transmitted over a digital network.

Method of grouping data into packets that are transmitted over a digital network.

An animation demonstrating datagram type of packet switching across a network
NSFNET Traffic 1991, NSFNET backbone nodes are shown at the top, regional networks below, traffic volume is depicted from purple (zero bytes) to white (100 billion bytes), visualization by NCSA using traffic data provided by the Merit Network.

Packet switching is used in the Internet and most local area networks.