The Internet Messenger by Buky Schwartz, located in Holon, Israel
Decomposition of an IPv4 address from dot-decimal notation to its binary value
T3 NSFNET Backbone, c. 1992.
Decomposition of an IPv6 address from hexadecimal representation to its binary value
ICANN headquarters in the Playa Vista neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, United States.
2007 map showing submarine fiberoptic telecommunication cables around the world.
Packet routing across the Internet involves several tiers of Internet service providers.
Number of mobile cellular subscriptions 2012–2016
As user data is processed through the protocol stack, each abstraction layer adds encapsulation information at the sending host. Data is transmitted over the wire at the link level between hosts and routers. Encapsulation is removed by the receiving host. Intermediate relays update link encapsulation at each hop, and inspect the IP layer for routing purposes.
Conceptual data flow in a simple network topology of two hosts (A and B) connected by a link between their respective routers. The application on each host executes read and write operations as if the processes were directly connected to each other by some kind of data pipe. After the establishment of this pipe, most details of the communication are hidden from each process, as the underlying principles of communication are implemented in the lower protocol layers. In analogy, at the transport layer the communication appears as host-to-host, without knowledge of the application data structures and the connecting routers, while at the internetworking layer, individual network boundaries are traversed at each router.
A DNS resolver consults three name servers to resolve the domain name user-visible "www.wikipedia.org" to determine the IPV4 Address 207.142.131.234
Creating a subnet by dividing the host identifier
This NeXT Computer was used by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN and became the world's first Web server.
Share of population using the Internet. See or edit source data.
Internet users per 100 population members and GDP per capita for selected countries.
Internet users per 100 inhabitants Source: International Telecommunication Union.
Internet users in 2015 as a percentage of a country's population Source: International Telecommunication Union.
'''Fixed broadband Internet subscriptions in 2012
as a percentage of a country's population''' Source: International Telecommunication Union.
'''Mobile broadband Internet subscriptions in 2012
as a percentage of a country's population''' Source: International Telecommunication Union.
Banner in Bangkok during the 2014 Thai coup d'état, informing the Thai public that 'like' or 'share' activities on social media could result in imprisonment (observed 30 June 2014).
Internet users by language<ref name=NIUBL-IWS>{{cite web|url=http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm|title=Number of Internet Users by Language|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120426122721/http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm|archive-date=26 April 2012|website=Internet World Stats, Miniwatts Marketing Group|date=31 May 2011|access-date=22 April 2012}}</ref>
Website content languages<ref name=UofCLBWApril2013>{{cite web|title=Usage of content languages for websites|url=http://w3techs.com/technologies/overview/content_language/all|work=W3Techs.com|access-date=26 April 2013|archive-url=https://www.webcitation.org/66ZQzUXh6?url=http://w3techs.com/technologies/overview/content_language/all|archive-date=31 March 2012|url-status=live}}</ref>

However, because of the growth of the Internet and the depletion of available IPv4 addresses, a new version of IP (IPv6), using 128 bits for the IP address, was standardized in 1998.

- IP address

The overreaching definitions of the two principal name spaces in the Internet, the Internet Protocol address (IP address) space and the Domain Name System (DNS), are directed by a maintainer organization, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN).

- Internet
The Internet Messenger by Buky Schwartz, located in Holon, Israel

11 related topics

Alpha

IPv6 header

IPv6

IPv6 header
Glossary of terms used for IPv6 addresses
Decomposition of the dot-decimal IPv4 address representation to its binary value
Multicast structure in IPv6
Several examples of IPv6 extension headers
IPv6 packet header
A general structure for an IPv6 unicast address
The Link-Local Unicast Address structure in IPv6
The global unicast address structure in IPv6
IPv6 Prefix Assignment mechanism with IANA, RIRs, and ISPs
IPv4-compatible IPv6 unicast address
IPv4-mapped IPv6 unicast address
A timeline for the standards governing IPv6
Monthly IPv6 allocations per regional Internet registry (RIR)

Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is the most recent version of the Internet Protocol (IP), the communications protocol that provides an identification and location system for computers on networks and routes traffic across the Internet.

Devices on the Internet are assigned a unique IP address for identification and location definition.

Rack containing several enterprise class routers connected to multiple networks

Router (computing)

Networking device that forwards data packets between computer networks.

Networking device that forwards data packets between computer networks.

Rack containing several enterprise class routers connected to multiple networks
Home and small office wireless router
A typical home or small office DSL router showing the telephone socket (left, white) to connect it to the internet using ADSL, and Ethernet jacks (right, yellow) to connect it to home computers and printers.
A screenshot of the LuCI web interface used by OpenWrt. This page configures Dynamic DNS.
The first ARPANET router, the Interface Message Processor was delivered to UCLA August 30, 1969, and went online October 29, 1969

Routers perform the traffic directing functions on the Internet.

Routers may also be used to connect two or more logical groups of computer devices known as subnets, each with a different network prefix.

Encapsulation of application data carried by UDP to a link protocol frame

Internet Protocol

Network layer communications protocol in the Internet protocol suite for relaying datagrams across network boundaries.

Network layer communications protocol in the Internet protocol suite for relaying datagrams across network boundaries.

Encapsulation of application data carried by UDP to a link protocol frame
A timeline for the development of the transmission control Protocol TCP and Internet Protocol IP.
First Internet demonstration, linking the ARPANET, PRNET, and SATNET on November 22, 1977

Its routing function enables internetworking, and essentially establishes the Internet.

IP has the task of delivering packets from the source host to the destination host solely based on the IP addresses in the packet headers.

Diagram of the first internetworked connection

Internet protocol suite

Diagram of the first internetworked connection
An SRI International Packet Radio Van, used for the first three-way internetworked transmission.
Conceptual data flow in a simple network topology of two hosts (A and B) connected by a link between their respective routers. The application on each host executes read and write operations as if the processes were directly connected to each other by some kind of data pipe. After establishment of this pipe, most details of the communication are hidden from each process, as the underlying principles of communication are implemented in the lower protocol layers. In analogy, at the transport layer the communication appears as host-to-host, without knowledge of the application data structures and the connecting routers, while at the internetworking layer, individual network boundaries are traversed at each router.
Encapsulation of application data descending through the layers described in RFC 1122

The Internet protocol suite, commonly known as TCP/IP, is the set of communications protocols used in the Internet and similar computer networks.

The internet layer exchanges datagrams across network boundaries. It provides a uniform networking interface that hides the actual topology (layout) of the underlying network connections. It is therefore also the layer that establishes internetworking. Indeed, it defines and establishes the Internet. This layer defines the addressing and routing structures used for the TCP/IP protocol suite. The primary protocol in this scope is the Internet Protocol, which defines IP addresses. Its function in routing is to transport datagrams to the next host, functioning as an IP router, that has the connectivity to a network closer to the final data destination.

400px

Classless Inter-Domain Routing

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A Table of CIDR prefixes for IPv6, it shows the number of corresponding equivalent subnets for each prefix, as well as the number of the host identifier bits.

Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR ) is a method for allocating IP addresses and for IP routing.

The Internet Engineering Task Force introduced CIDR in 1993 to replace the previous classful network addressing architecture on the Internet.

Creating a subnet by dividing the host identifier

Subnetwork

Logical subdivision of an IP network.

Logical subdivision of an IP network.

Creating a subnet by dividing the host identifier
The concept of subnetting the IPv4 address space 200.100.10.0/24, which contains 256 addresses, into two smaller address spaces, namely 200.100.10.0/25 and 200.100.10.128/25 with 128 addresses each.

Computers that belong to the same subnet are addressed with an identical most-significant bit-group in their IP addresses.

Computers participating in a network such as the Internet each have at least one network address.

Network Packet

Computer network

Set of computers sharing resources located on or provided by network nodes.

Set of computers sharing resources located on or provided by network nodes.

Network Packet
Common network topologies
A sample overlay network
Network links
Fiber optic cables are used to transmit light from one computer/network node to another
2007 map showing submarine optical fiber telecommunication cables around the world.
Computers are very often connected to networks using wireless links
An ATM network interface in the form of an accessory card. A lot of network interfaces are built-in.
A typical home or small office router showing the ADSL telephone line and Ethernet network cable connections
Firewalls
The TCP/IP model and its relation to common protocols used at different layers of the model.
Message flows between two devices (A-B) at the four layers of the TCP/IP model in the presence of a router (R). Red flows are effective communication paths, black paths are across the actual network links.
SONET & SDH
Asynchronous Transfer Mode
Routing calculates good paths through a network for information to take. For example, from node 1 to node 6 the best routes are likely to be 1-8-7-6, 1-8-10-6 or 1-9-10-6, as these are the shortest routes.
Partial map of the Internet, based on the January 15, 2005 data found on opte.org . Each line is drawn between two nodes, representing two IP addresses. The length of the lines is indicative of the delay between those two nodes. This graph represents less than 30% of the Class C networks reachable.

In 1974, Vint Cerf, Yogen Dalal, and Carl Sunshine published the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) specification,, coining the term Internet as a shorthand for internetworking.

The intranet uses the IP protocol and IP-based tools such as web browsers and file transfer applications.

IPv4 address exhaustion timeline

IPv4 address exhaustion

Depletion of the pool of unallocated IPv4 addresses.

Depletion of the pool of unallocated IPv4 addresses.

IPv4 address exhaustion timeline
Exhaustion of IPv4 addresses since 1995
IPv4 addresses allocation rate per RIR
Geoff Huston's projection of the evolution of the IP pool for each RIR
Regional Internet registries
A timeline for IPv4 exhaustion in IANA and the RIRs.

Because the original Internet architecture had fewer than 4.3 billion addresses available, depletion has been anticipated since the late 1980s, when the Internet started experiencing dramatic growth.

The IP address space is managed globally by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), and by five regional Internet registries (RIRs) responsible in their designated territories for assignment to end users and local Internet registries, such as Internet service providers.

The hierarchical Domain Name System for class Internet, organized into zones, each served by a name server

Domain Name System

The hierarchical Domain Name System for class Internet, organized into zones, each served by a name server
A DNS resolver that implements the iterative approach mandated by RFC 1034; in this case, the resolver consults three name servers to resolve the fully qualified domain name "www.wikipedia.org".
DNS resolution sequence

The Domain Name System (DNS) is the hierarchical and decentralized naming system used to identify computers reachable through the Internet or other Internet Protocol (IP) networks.

These are most commonly used to map human-friendly domain names to the numerical IP addresses computers need to locate services and devices using the underlying network protocols, but have been extended over time to perform many other functions as well.

Example of residential network including VoIP

Voice over IP

Example of residential network including VoIP
Asterisk-based PBX for small business

Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), also called IP telephony, is a method and group of technologies for the delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions over Internet Protocol (IP) networks, such as the Internet.

Even a provider having wired infrastructure, such as a DSL provider, may know only the approximate location of the device, based on the IP address allocated to the network router and the known service address.