A report on Internet and IPv6

The Internet Messenger by Buky Schwartz, located in Holon, Israel
IPv6 header
T3 NSFNET Backbone, c. 1992.
Glossary of terms used for IPv6 addresses
ICANN headquarters in the Playa Vista neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, United States.
Decomposition of the dot-decimal IPv4 address representation to its binary value
2007 map showing submarine fiberoptic telecommunication cables around the world.
Multicast structure in IPv6
Packet routing across the Internet involves several tiers of Internet service providers.
Several examples of IPv6 extension headers
Number of mobile cellular subscriptions 2012–2016
IPv6 packet header
As user data is processed through the protocol stack, each abstraction layer adds encapsulation information at the sending host. Data is transmitted over the wire at the link level between hosts and routers. Encapsulation is removed by the receiving host. Intermediate relays update link encapsulation at each hop, and inspect the IP layer for routing purposes.
A general structure for an IPv6 unicast address
Conceptual data flow in a simple network topology of two hosts (A and B) connected by a link between their respective routers. The application on each host executes read and write operations as if the processes were directly connected to each other by some kind of data pipe. After the establishment of this pipe, most details of the communication are hidden from each process, as the underlying principles of communication are implemented in the lower protocol layers. In analogy, at the transport layer the communication appears as host-to-host, without knowledge of the application data structures and the connecting routers, while at the internetworking layer, individual network boundaries are traversed at each router.
The Link-Local Unicast Address structure in IPv6
A DNS resolver consults three name servers to resolve the domain name user-visible "www.wikipedia.org" to determine the IPV4 Address 207.142.131.234
The global unicast address structure in IPv6
Creating a subnet by dividing the host identifier
IPv6 Prefix Assignment mechanism with IANA, RIRs, and ISPs
This NeXT Computer was used by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN and became the world's first Web server.
IPv4-compatible IPv6 unicast address
Share of population using the Internet. See or edit source data.
IPv4-mapped IPv6 unicast address
Internet users per 100 population members and GDP per capita for selected countries.
A timeline for the standards governing IPv6
Internet users per 100 inhabitants Source: International Telecommunication Union.
Monthly IPv6 allocations per regional Internet registry (RIR)
Internet users in 2015 as a percentage of a country's population Source: International Telecommunication Union.
'''Fixed broadband Internet subscriptions in 2012
as a percentage of a country's population''' Source: International Telecommunication Union.
'''Mobile broadband Internet subscriptions in 2012
as a percentage of a country's population''' Source: International Telecommunication Union.
Banner in Bangkok during the 2014 Thai coup d'état, informing the Thai public that 'like' or 'share' activities on social media could result in imprisonment (observed 30 June 2014).
Internet users by language<ref name=NIUBL-IWS>{{cite web|url=http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm|title=Number of Internet Users by Language|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120426122721/http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm|archive-date=26 April 2012|website=Internet World Stats, Miniwatts Marketing Group|date=31 May 2011|access-date=22 April 2012}}</ref>
Website content languages<ref name=UofCLBWApril2013>{{cite web|title=Usage of content languages for websites|url=http://w3techs.com/technologies/overview/content_language/all|work=W3Techs.com|access-date=26 April 2013|archive-url=https://www.webcitation.org/66ZQzUXh6?url=http://w3techs.com/technologies/overview/content_language/all|archive-date=31 March 2012|url-status=live}}</ref>

Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is the most recent version of the Internet Protocol (IP), the communications protocol that provides an identification and location system for computers on networks and routes traffic across the Internet.

- IPv6

The technical underpinning and standardization of the core protocols (IPv4 and IPv6) is an activity of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), a non-profit organization of loosely affiliated international participants that anyone may associate with by contributing technical expertise.

- Internet
The Internet Messenger by Buky Schwartz, located in Holon, Israel

11 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Decomposition of an IPv4 address from dot-decimal notation to its binary value

IP address

6 links

Numerical label such as that is connected to a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication.

Numerical label such as that is connected to a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication.

Decomposition of an IPv4 address from dot-decimal notation to its binary value
Decomposition of an IPv6 address from hexadecimal representation to its binary value

However, because of the growth of the Internet and the depletion of available IPv4 addresses, a new version of IP (IPv6), using 128 bits for the IP address, was standardized in 1998.

IPv4 packet

IPv4

4 links

Fourth version of the Internet Protocol (IP).

Fourth version of the Internet Protocol (IP).

IPv4 packet
Decomposition of the quad-dotted IPv4 address representation to its binary value

It is one of the core protocols of standards-based internetworking methods in the Internet and other packet-switched networks.

It is still used to route most Internet traffic today, even with the ongoing deployment of Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6), its successor.

400px

Classless Inter-Domain Routing

4 links

Method for allocating IP addresses and for IP routing.

Method for allocating IP addresses and for IP routing.

400px
400px
A Table of CIDR prefixes for IPv6, it shows the number of corresponding equivalent subnets for each prefix, as well as the number of the host identifier bits.

The Internet Engineering Task Force introduced CIDR in 1993 to replace the previous classful network addressing architecture on the Internet.

In IPv6, however, the interface identifier has a fixed size of 64 bits by convention, and smaller subnets are never allocated to end users.

Encapsulation of application data carried by UDP to a link protocol frame

Internet Protocol

3 links

Network layer communications protocol in the Internet protocol suite for relaying datagrams across network boundaries.

Network layer communications protocol in the Internet protocol suite for relaying datagrams across network boundaries.

Encapsulation of application data carried by UDP to a link protocol frame
A timeline for the development of the transmission control Protocol TCP and Internet Protocol IP.
First Internet demonstration, linking the ARPANET, PRNET, and SATNET on November 22, 1977

Its routing function enables internetworking, and essentially establishes the Internet.

Its successor is Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6), which has been in increasing deployment on the public Internet since c. 2006.

IPv4 address exhaustion timeline

IPv4 address exhaustion

2 links

Depletion of the pool of unallocated IPv4 addresses.

Depletion of the pool of unallocated IPv4 addresses.

IPv4 address exhaustion timeline
Exhaustion of IPv4 addresses since 1995
IPv4 addresses allocation rate per RIR
Geoff Huston's projection of the evolution of the IP pool for each RIR
Regional Internet registries
A timeline for IPv4 exhaustion in IANA and the RIRs.

Because the original Internet architecture had fewer than 4.3 billion addresses available, depletion has been anticipated since the late 1980s, when the Internet started experiencing dramatic growth.

This depletion is one of the reasons for the development and deployment of its successor protocol, IPv6.

The hierarchical Domain Name System for class Internet, organized into zones, each served by a name server

Domain Name System

2 links

The hierarchical Domain Name System for class Internet, organized into zones, each served by a name server
A DNS resolver that implements the iterative approach mandated by RFC 1034; in this case, the resolver consults three name servers to resolve the fully qualified domain name "www.wikipedia.org".
DNS resolution sequence

The Domain Name System (DNS) is the hierarchical and decentralized naming system used to identify computers reachable through the Internet or other Internet Protocol (IP) networks.

For example, the domain name www.example.com translates to the addresses (IPv4) and (IPv6).

Creating a subnet by dividing the host identifier

Subnetwork

2 links

Logical subdivision of an IP network.

Logical subdivision of an IP network.

Creating a subnet by dividing the host identifier
The concept of subnetting the IPv4 address space 200.100.10.0/24, which contains 256 addresses, into two smaller address spaces, namely 200.100.10.0/25 and 200.100.10.128/25 with 128 addresses each.

The IPv6 address specification is a large address block with 296 addresses, having a 32-bit routing prefix.

Computers participating in a network such as the Internet each have at least one network address.

Routing protocol classification computer networks.

Routing protocol

1 links

A routing protocol specifies how routers communicate with each other to distribute information that enables them to select routes between nodes on a computer network.

A routing protocol specifies how routers communicate with each other to distribute information that enables them to select routes between nodes on a computer network.

Routing protocol classification computer networks.

Exterior gateway protocols are routing protocols used on the Internet for exchanging routing information between Autonomous Systems, such as Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), a path-vector routing protocol. Exterior gateway protocols should not be confused with Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP), an obsolete routing protocol.

Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is encapsulated in IP, but runs only on the IPv4 subnet, while the IPv6 version runs on the link using only link-local addressing.

BGP state machine

Border Gateway Protocol

0 links

BGP state machine
A typical configuration of BGP RR deployment, as proposed by Section 6, RFC 4456.
BGP table growth on the Internet
Number of AS on the Internet vs number of registered AS

Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is a standardized exterior gateway protocol designed to exchange routing and reachability information among autonomous systems (AS) on the Internet.

IPv6 BGP was first defined in in 1994, and it was improved to in 1998.

Illustration of starting a passive connection using port 21

File Transfer Protocol

0 links

Standard communication protocol used for the transfer of computer files from a server to a client on a computer network.

Standard communication protocol used for the transfer of computer files from a server to a client on a computer network.

Illustration of starting a passive connection using port 21

Several proposed standards amend, for example (February 1994) enables Firewall-Friendly FTP (passive mode), (June 1997) proposes security extensions, (September 1998) adds support for IPv6 and defines a new type of passive mode.

It was never widely accepted on the Internet, and is now assigned Historic status by the IETF.