The Internet Messenger by Buky Schwartz, located in Holon, Israel
Kim in April 2019
T3 NSFNET Backbone, c. 1992.
The Liebefeld-Steinhölzli public school in Köniz, Switzerland, reportedly attended by Kim Jong-un
ICANN headquarters in the Playa Vista neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, United States.
"Kim Jong-un" in Chosŏn'gŭl (top) and hancha (bottom) scripts
2007 map showing submarine fiberoptic telecommunication cables around the world.
People paying homage to the statues of Kim Il-sung and Kim Jong-il, April 2012
Packet routing across the Internet involves several tiers of Internet service providers.
Portraits of Kim Jong-un's father and grandfather (Arirang Festival mass games in Pyongyang)
Number of mobile cellular subscriptions 2012–2016
North Korean soldiers saluting at the Revolutionary Martyrs' Cemetery in Pyongyang, 2012
As user data is processed through the protocol stack, each abstraction layer adds encapsulation information at the sending host. Data is transmitted over the wire at the link level between hosts and routers. Encapsulation is removed by the receiving host. Intermediate relays update link encapsulation at each hop, and inspect the IP layer for routing purposes.
A selection of Kim Jong-un's works, translated to different languages
Conceptual data flow in a simple network topology of two hosts (A and B) connected by a link between their respective routers. The application on each host executes read and write operations as if the processes were directly connected to each other by some kind of data pipe. After the establishment of this pipe, most details of the communication are hidden from each process, as the underlying principles of communication are implemented in the lower protocol layers. In analogy, at the transport layer the communication appears as host-to-host, without knowledge of the application data structures and the connecting routers, while at the internetworking layer, individual network boundaries are traversed at each router.
People in Pyongyang watch Kim Jong-un on North Korean TV, 2015
A DNS resolver consults three name servers to resolve the domain name user-visible "www.wikipedia.org" to determine the IPV4 Address 207.142.131.234
Model of a Unha-9 rocket on display at a floral exhibition in Pyongyang, 30 August 2013
Creating a subnet by dividing the host identifier
Kim and South Korean President Moon Jae-in shake hands during the 2018 inter-Korean Summit, April 2018
This NeXT Computer was used by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN and became the world's first Web server.
Kim and U.S. President Donald Trump shake hands at the start of the 2018 North Korea–United States Summit, June 2018
Share of population using the Internet. See or edit source data.
Kim meeting with Russian President Vladimir Putin during the North Korea–Russia Summit, April 2019
Internet users per 100 population members and GDP per capita for selected countries.
Kim (holding envelope) with Chung Eui-yong. Kim's sister Kim Yo-jong (on the right) is said to be very close to him
Internet users per 100 inhabitants Source: International Telecommunication Union.
Internet users in 2015 as a percentage of a country's population Source: International Telecommunication Union.
'''Fixed broadband Internet subscriptions in 2012
as a percentage of a country's population''' Source: International Telecommunication Union.
'''Mobile broadband Internet subscriptions in 2012
as a percentage of a country's population''' Source: International Telecommunication Union.
Banner in Bangkok during the 2014 Thai coup d'état, informing the Thai public that 'like' or 'share' activities on social media could result in imprisonment (observed 30 June 2014).
Internet users by language<ref name=NIUBL-IWS>{{cite web|url=http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm|title=Number of Internet Users by Language|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120426122721/http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm|archive-date=26 April 2012|website=Internet World Stats, Miniwatts Marketing Group|date=31 May 2011|access-date=22 April 2012}}</ref>
Website content languages<ref name=UofCLBWApril2013>{{cite web|title=Usage of content languages for websites|url=http://w3techs.com/technologies/overview/content_language/all|work=W3Techs.com|access-date=26 April 2013|archive-url=https://www.webcitation.org/66ZQzUXh6?url=http://w3techs.com/technologies/overview/content_language/all|archive-date=31 March 2012|url-status=live}}</ref>

Global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices.

- Internet

North Korean politician who has been Supreme Leader of North Korea since 2011 and the leader of the Workers' Party of Korea (WPK) since 2012.

- Kim Jong-un

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Mass media in North Korea

Amongst the most strictly controlled in the world.

Media maintains a cult of personality for the Kim family, including Kim Il-sung
Pyongyang TV Tower
A public newspaper reading stand in Pyongyang
Open-air television in Pyongyang

Kim Jong-un, who replaced his father as the leader, has largely followed in the footsteps of both his grandfather, Kim Il-sung, and his father.

Internet access in North Korea is restricted to Internet cafés or hotels designated for foreign tourists in Pyongyang, and is limited for North Koreans to essential users like international businesses.

Supreme Leader (North Korean title)

De facto paramount leader of the party, state and army.

Propaganda workers began calling Kim Il-sung supreme leader in the late 1940s and the term has since been used to describe the status of Kim Jong-il and Kim Jong-un.

Korean People's Army

Military force of North Korea and the armed wing of the Workers' Party of Korea (WPK).

Emblem of the Korean People's Army
The KPA's first flag, used in 1948
The KPA's flag from 1992 to 1993. Since this flag's retirement in 1993, the KPA has not had its own dedicated flag.
The KPA has not had a discrete flag of its own since 1993; however the flag of the KPA Ground Force is sometimes used to represent the entire Korean People's Army.
A monument in Pyongyang, depicting North Korean airmen and a MiG fighter
The Memorial of Soldiers at the Mansudae Grand Monument
A North Korean soldier at the DMZ, 2005
North Korean soldiers at Panmunjom
Korean People's Army BTR-80-vehicles on parade
Vice Marshal Jo Myong-rok meets Bill Clinton at the White House, October 2000
Koksan, one of North Korea's principal heavy artillery pieces. This example was captured in Iraq.
North Korean soldiers standing at the Joint Security Area between the blue buildings
A former Indonesian Lim-5 on display in the United States in North Korean markings
A semi-submersible infiltration craft used by North Korean special forces in the 1980s
North Korean ballistic missiles

Currently, WPK General Secretary Kim Jong-un serves as Supreme Commander and the chairman of the WPK Central Military Commission.

Workers' Party of Korea

Founding and sole ruling party of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.

Kim Il-sung (left) with Pak Hon-yong in Pyongyang, 1948
"Workers' Party of Korea" in Hancha (top) and Chosŏn'gŭl (bottom) scripts
Propaganda mosaic commemorating the triumphant homecoming of Kim Il-sung after he liberated Korea from Japan
Although Kim Jong-il headed the WPK with no pretense of following the party rules, it was revitalized at the 3rd Conference at the end of his rule
The Monument to Party Founding in Pyongyang, erected in 1995
General Secretary Kim Jong-un in 2019
The headquarters of the WPK Central Committee and hence the party
Kim Il-sung badge with the WPK emblem
The Monument to Party Founding in Pyongyang, erected in 1995

Kim Jong-un is the current WPK leader, serving as General Secretary of the WPK and Chairman of the CMC.

North Korea

Country in East Asia.

Kim Il-sung, the founder of North Korea
Territory often changed hands early in the war, until the front stabilized.
Statue of Chollima Movement in Pyongyang
Pyongyang Metro with bomb shelter functions
Topographic map of North Korea
North Korea map of Köppen climate classification
Mansudae Assembly Hall, seat of the Supreme People's Assembly
North Korean citizens paying respect to the statues of Kim Il-sung (left) and Kim Jong-il at the Mansudae Grand Monument
Kim Jong-un and his sister Kim Yo-jong (right) in March 2018
The close China-North Korea relationship is celebrated at the Arirang Mass Games in Pyongyang.
North Korean leader Kim Jong-un meeting with Russian President Vladimir Putin, 25 April 2019
Kim Jong-un and South Korean President Moon Jae-in shake hands during the inter-Korean Summit, April 2018
South Korean aid convoy entering North Korea through the Demilitarized Zone, 1998
A North Korean police car in 2017; the Chosŏn'gŭl lettering on the side translates to "Traffic safety".
Ilyushin Il-76 strategic military airlifter used by Air Koryo
The Memorial of Soldiers at the Mansudae Grand Monument
Development of life expectancy in North Korea and South Korea
A dental clinic at Pyongyang Maternity Hospital
English lecture at the Grand People's Study House in Pyongyang
Chilgol Church in Pyongyang, where Kang Pan-sok—the mother of the late supreme leader Kim Il-sung—served as a Presbyterian deaconess.
Historical GDP per capita estimates of North Korea, 1820–2018
A proportional representation of North Korea exports, 2019
Apartments along Pyongyang
An industrial plant in Hamhung
Foreign tourists in Masikryong Ski Resort
Satellite image of the Korean Peninsula at night, contrasting use of night-time lighting in North and South Korea.
Unha-3 space launch vehicle at Sohae Satellite Launching Station
Pyohunsa Buddhist Temple, a National Treasure of North Korea
A North Korean bookstore with works of Kim Il-sung and Kim Jong-il
Pyongyang TV Tower
North Korean pibimbap
North Korea (in red) against Brazil at the 2010 FIFA World Cup
A scene from the 2012 Arirang Festival

Despite initial attempts to engage with the west in the early 1990s, by the 21st century Kim Jong il and later his son Kim Jong un made the decision to pursue nuclear weapons, creating a series of crises ongoing to the present day.

Kim Jong-il

North Korean politician who was the second supreme leader of North Korea from 1994 to 2011.

Kim in 2011
Idealized portrait of Kim Jong-il
"Kim Jong-il" in Chosŏn'gŭl (top) and hancha (bottom) scripts.
North Koreans bowing to the statues of Kim Jong-il and his father, Kim Il-sung, at the Mansu Hill Grand Monument
Kim talking with Russian President Vladimir Putin during their 2001 meeting in Moscow
Kim Ok, Kim's personal secretary, with U.S. Secretary of Defense William Cohen, 2000
A North Korean voting booth containing portraits of Kim Il-sung and Kim Jong-il under the national flag (below the portraits is the ballot box)
Kim at a meeting during his visit with Dmitry Medvedev in August 2011
Portraits of Kim Jong-il and his father in the Grand People's Study House in Pyongyang
Kim with Russian President Dmitry Medvedev in Sosnovy-Bor Military garrison, Zaigrayevsky District Buriatya on 24 August 2011
An official portrait of Kim, issued after his death
Kim Jong-il and his father Kim Il-sung
Kim in 2000
Kim Jong-il and his father Kim Il-sung
Equestrian statues of younger versions of Kim Jong-il (right) and Kim Il-sung, Pyongyang
Books written by Kim Jong-il

He led North Korea from the 1994 death of his father Kim Il-sung, the first Supreme Leader, until his own death in 2011, when he was succeeded by his son, Kim Jong-un.

Ko Yong-hui

Ko Yong-hui (26 June 1952 – 13 August 2004), also spelled Ko Young-hee, was the North Korean supreme leader Kim Jong-il's consort and the mother of North Korea's leader, Kim Jong-un.

President of the State Affairs Commission

Head of state of North Korea.

The current president is Kim Jong-un, who took office on 29 June 2016 and was re-elected on 11 April 2019.

Donald Trump

American politician, media personality, and businessman who served as the 45th president of the United States from 2017 to 2021.

Official portrait, 2017
Trump at the New York Military Academy in 1964
Trump (far right) and wife Ivana in the receiving line of a state dinner for King Fahd of Saudi Arabia in 1985, with U.S. president Ronald Reagan and First Lady Nancy Reagan
Trump Tower in Midtown Manhattan
Entrance of the Trump Taj Mahal in Atlantic City
Trump and New Jersey Generals quarterback Doug Flutie at a 1985 press conference in the lobby of Trump Tower
Trump's star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame
Trump at a New York Mets baseball game in 2009
Trump and President Bill Clinton in June 2000
Trump speaking at CPAC 2011
Trump campaigning in Arizona, March 2016.
2016 electoral vote results. Trump won 304–227
Women's March in Washington on January 21, 2017
Trump is sworn in as president by Chief Justice John Roberts
Trump speaks to automobile workers in Michigan, March 2017
Trump and group of officials and advisors on the way from White House complex to St. John's Church
Trump examines border wall prototypes in Otay Mesa, California.
Trump with the other G7 leaders at the 45th summit in France, 2019
Trump and Xi Jinping at 2018 G20 Summit.
Trump, King Salman of Saudi Arabia, and Egyptian president Abdel Fattah el-Sisi at the 2017 Riyadh summit in Saudi Arabia
U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo meeting with Taliban delegation in Qatar in September 2020
Trump meets Kim Jong-un at the Singapore summit, June 2018
Putin and Trump shaking hands at the G20 Osaka summit, June 2019
Trump and his third Supreme Court nominee, Amy Coney Barrett.
Trump conducts a COVID-19 press briefing with members of the White House Coronavirus Task Force on March 15, 2020
Poland's president Andrzej Duda visited the White House on June 24, 2020, the first foreign leader to do so since the start of the pandemic.
Trump boards helicopter for COVID-19 treatment on October 2, 2020
Trump discharged on October 5, 2020, from Walter Reed National Military Medical Center
Members of House of Representatives vote on two articles of impeachment, December 18, 2019
Trump displaying the front page of The Washington Post reporting his acquittal by the Senate
Trump at a 2020 campaign rally in Arizona
2020 Electoral College results, Trump lost 232–306
Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi signing the second impeachment of Trump
Trump speaks at the "Rally to Protect Our Elections" in Phoenix, Arizona, July 2021.
Trump talking to the press, March 2017
Fact-checkers from The Washington Post, the Toronto Star, and CNN compiled data on "false or misleading claims" (orange background), and "false claims" (violet foreground), respectively.

Trump met with North Korean leader Kim Jong-un three times, but made no progress on denuclearization.

Supreme People's Assembly

Unicameral legislature of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), commonly known as North Korea.

On April 14, 2012, during the fifth session of the 12th Supreme People's Assembly Kim Jong Un was elected as the country's supreme leader.