A report on Internet and Personal computer

The Internet Messenger by Buky Schwartz, located in Holon, Israel
An artist's depiction of a 2000s-era desktop-style personal computer, which includes a metal case with the computing components, a display monitor and a keyboard (mouse not shown)
T3 NSFNET Backbone, c. 1992.
Commodore PET in 1983 (at the American Museum of Science and Energy), an early example of a personal computer
ICANN headquarters in the Playa Vista neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, United States.
The 8-bit architecture Pravetz 82 computer produced in Bulgaria from 1982, in school class in the Soviet Union
2007 map showing submarine fiberoptic telecommunication cables around the world.
Altair 8800 computer
Packet routing across the Internet involves several tiers of Internet service providers.
The three personal computers referred to by Byte Magazine as the "1977 Trinity" of home computing: The Commodore PET, the Apple II, and the TRS-80 Model I.
Number of mobile cellular subscriptions 2012–2016
IBM 5150, released in 1981
As user data is processed through the protocol stack, each abstraction layer adds encapsulation information at the sending host. Data is transmitted over the wire at the link level between hosts and routers. Encapsulation is removed by the receiving host. Intermediate relays update link encapsulation at each hop, and inspect the IP layer for routing purposes.
The 8-bit PMD 85 personal computer produced in 1985–1990 by the Tesla company in the former socialist Czechoslovakia
Conceptual data flow in a simple network topology of two hosts (A and B) connected by a link between their respective routers. The application on each host executes read and write operations as if the processes were directly connected to each other by some kind of data pipe. After the establishment of this pipe, most details of the communication are hidden from each process, as the underlying principles of communication are implemented in the lower protocol layers. In analogy, at the transport layer the communication appears as host-to-host, without knowledge of the application data structures and the connecting routers, while at the internetworking layer, individual network boundaries are traversed at each router.
Sun SPARCstation 1+ from the early 1990s, with a 25 MHz RISC processor
A DNS resolver consults three name servers to resolve the domain name user-visible "www.wikipedia.org" to determine the IPV4 Address 207.142.131.234
A Dell OptiPlex desktop computer
Creating a subnet by dividing the host identifier
A portable computer Cambridge Z88 released in 1987
This NeXT Computer was used by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN and became the world's first Web server.
A laptop computer
Share of population using the Internet. See or edit source data.
An HP netbook
Internet users per 100 population members and GDP per capita for selected countries.
HP Compaq tablet PC with rotating/removable keyboard
Internet users per 100 inhabitants Source: International Telecommunication Union.
The LG G4, a typical smartphone
Internet users in 2015 as a percentage of a country's population Source: International Telecommunication Union.
A screenshot of the LibreOffice Writer software
'''Fixed broadband Internet subscriptions in 2012
as a percentage of a country's population''' Source: International Telecommunication Union.
A screenshot of Krita, which is a raster graphics editor.
'''Mobile broadband Internet subscriptions in 2012
as a percentage of a country's population''' Source: International Telecommunication Union.
Children being taught how to use a laptop computer in 2005. An older (1990s-era) desktop personal computer's CRT monitor is visible in the background.
Banner in Bangkok during the 2014 Thai coup d'état, informing the Thai public that 'like' or 'share' activities on social media could result in imprisonment (observed 30 June 2014).
Personal computers worldwide in million distinguished by developed and developing world
Internet users by language<ref name=NIUBL-IWS>{{cite web|url=http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm|title=Number of Internet Users by Language|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120426122721/http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm|archive-date=26 April 2012|website=Internet World Stats, Miniwatts Marketing Group|date=31 May 2011|access-date=22 April 2012}}</ref>
Website content languages<ref name=UofCLBWApril2013>{{cite web|title=Usage of content languages for websites|url=http://w3techs.com/technologies/overview/content_language/all|work=W3Techs.com|access-date=26 April 2013|archive-url=https://www.webcitation.org/66ZQzUXh6?url=http://w3techs.com/technologies/overview/content_language/all|archive-date=31 March 2012|url-status=live}}</ref>

The linking of commercial networks and enterprises by the early 1990s marked the beginning of the transition to the modern Internet, and generated a sustained exponential growth as generations of institutional, personal, and mobile computers were connected to the network.

- Internet

Commercial Internet service providers emerged in the late 1980s, giving public access to the rapidly growing network.

- Personal computer
The Internet Messenger by Buky Schwartz, located in Holon, Israel

6 related topics with Alpha

Overall

IBM Simon and charging base (1994)

Smartphone

2 links

Portable computer device that combines mobile telephone and computing functions into one unit.

Portable computer device that combines mobile telephone and computing functions into one unit.

IBM Simon and charging base (1994)
The Nokia 9110 Communicator, opened for access to keyboard
Several BlackBerry smartphones, which were highly popular in the mid-late 2000s
The LG Prada with a large capacitive touchscreen introduced in 2006
The original Apple iPhone; following its introduction the common smartphone form factor shifted to large touchscreen software interfaces without physical keypads
A Meizu MX4 with Flyme OS
The Nokia 9 PureView features a five-lens camera array with Zeiss optics, using a mixture of color and monochrome sensors.
The Huawei P30 features three rear-facing camera lenses with Leica optics.
A Moto G7 Power; its display uses a tall aspect ratio and includes a "notch".
A Samsung Galaxy S20 Plus, featuring a "hole-punch" camera
Mobile/desktop convergence: the Librem 5 smartphone can be used as a basic desktop computer
Smartphone with infrared transmitter on top for use as remote control
"Device options" menu of Samsung Mobile's TouchWiz user interface as of 2013, accessed by holding the power button for a second
The HTC Desire, a 2010 smartphone with optical trackpad and search button.
A smartphone touchscreen
Tooltip in Kiwi Browser, a Google Chromium derirative, reveals the full URL by hovering over the tab list using the stylus on a Samsung Galaxy Note 4.
Optical track pad sensor of an HTC Legend, 2010.
Inserted memory and SIM cards
A high-capacity portable battery charger (power bank).
Several smartphones running Google's Android OS
A Palm Treo 300 smartphone (2002)
A Nokia N70 smartphone (2005) running Symbian OS, which was highly popular in Europe and Asia in the 2000s
Mobile payment system.
A New York City driver holding two phones
A user consulting a mapping app on a phone
A sign along Bellaire Boulevard in Southside Place, Texas (Greater Houston) states that using mobile phones while driving is prohibited from 7:30 am to 9:00 am and from 2:00 pm to 4:15 pm
E-waste in Agbogbloshie

They are distinguished from feature phones by their stronger hardware capabilities and extensive mobile operating systems, which facilitate wider software, internet (including web browsing over mobile broadband), and multimedia functionality (including music, video, cameras, and gaming), alongside core phone functions such as voice calls and text messaging.

Mobile operating systems combine features of a personal computer operating system with other features useful for mobile or handheld use; usually including, and most of the following considered essential in modern mobile systems; a touchscreen, cellular, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi Protected Access, Wi-Fi, Global Positioning System (GPS) mobile navigation, video- and single-frame picture cameras, speech recognition, voice recorder, music player, near field communication, and infrared blaster.

This screenshot shows the "Inbox" page of an email client; users can see new emails and take actions, such as reading, deleting, saving, or responding to these messages.

Email

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Method of exchanging messages ("mail") between people using electronic devices.

Method of exchanging messages ("mail") between people using electronic devices.

This screenshot shows the "Inbox" page of an email client; users can see new emails and take actions, such as reading, deleting, saving, or responding to these messages.
The at sign, a part of every SMTP email address
When a "robot" on Wikipedia makes changes to image files, the uploader receives an email about the changes made.
Email operation
The interface of an email client, Thunderbird.

Email has been widely accepted by businesses, governments and non-governmental organizations in the developed world, and it is one of the key parts of an 'e-revolution' in workplace communication (with the other key plank being widespread adoption of highspeed Internet).

Many users access their personal emails from friends and family members using a personal computer in their house or apartment.

A telepresence system in 2007

Videotelephony

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Two-way or multipoint reception and transmission of audio and video signals by people in different locations for real time communication.

Two-way or multipoint reception and transmission of audio and video signals by people in different locations for real time communication.

A telepresence system in 2007
Videotelephony predicted to be in use by 2000, as envisioned in 1910 (artist's conception)
Videotelephone booth, 1922
Multiple user videoconferencing first being demonstrated with Stanford Research Institute's NLS computer technology (1968)
Global Schoolhouse students communicating via CU-SeeMe, shown here with a video frame rate between 0.9 and 3 frames per second (1993)
The Kyocera VP-210 Visual Phone was the first commercial mobile videophone (1999).
Russian President Dmitry Medvedev attending the Singapore APEC summit, holding a videoconference with Rashid Nurgaliyev via a Tactical MXP, after an arms depot explosion in Russia (2009)
A modern Avaya Nortel 1535 IP model broadband videophone (2008), using VoIP
USB webcam for PC
Dual display: An older Polycom VSX 7000 system and camera used for videoconferencing, with two displays for simultaneous broadcast from separate locations
A videoconference meeting facilitated by Google Hangouts
Deutsche Telekom T-View 100 ISDN-type videophone meant for home offices and small businesses, with a lens cover which can be rotated upward for privacy
The Tandberg E20 is an example of a SIP-only device. Such devices need to route calls through a Video Communication Server to be able to reach H.323 systems, a process known as "interworking" (2009).
A mobile video call between Sweden and Singapore made on a Sony Ericsson K800 (2007)
A Tandberg T3 high-resolution telepresence room in use (2008)
Indonesian and U.S. students participate in an educational videoconference (2010)
Video Interpreter sign used at VRS/VRI service locations
A deaf or hard-of-hearing person uses a Video Relay Service at his workplace to communicate with a hearing person in London (2007)
Dr. Heywood Floyd in the 1968 film 2001: A Space Odyssey calls his daughter on Earth

The development of advanced video codecs, more powerful CPUs, and high-bandwidth Internet telecommunication services in the late 1990s allowed videophones to provide high quality low-cost colour service between users almost any place in the world where the Internet is available.

In 1984, Concept Communication in the United States replaced the 100 lb, US$100,000 computers necessary for teleconferencing, with a $12,000 circuit board that doubled the video frame rate from 15 to 30 frames per second, and which reduced the equipment to the size of a circuit board fitting into standard personal computers.

Network Packet

Computer network

1 links

Set of computers sharing resources located on or provided by network nodes.

Set of computers sharing resources located on or provided by network nodes.

Network Packet
Common network topologies
A sample overlay network
Network links
Fiber optic cables are used to transmit light from one computer/network node to another
2007 map showing submarine optical fiber telecommunication cables around the world.
Computers are very often connected to networks using wireless links
An ATM network interface in the form of an accessory card. A lot of network interfaces are built-in.
A typical home or small office router showing the ADSL telephone line and Ethernet network cable connections
Firewalls
The TCP/IP model and its relation to common protocols used at different layers of the model.
Message flows between two devices (A-B) at the four layers of the TCP/IP model in the presence of a router (R). Red flows are effective communication paths, black paths are across the actual network links.
SONET & SDH
Asynchronous Transfer Mode
Routing calculates good paths through a network for information to take. For example, from node 1 to node 6 the best routes are likely to be 1-8-7-6, 1-8-10-6 or 1-9-10-6, as these are the shortest routes.
Partial map of the Internet, based on the January 15, 2005 data found on opte.org . Each line is drawn between two nodes, representing two IP addresses. The length of the lines is indicative of the delay between those two nodes. This graph represents less than 30% of the Class C networks reachable.

The nodes of a computer network can include personal computers, servers, networking hardware, or other specialised or general-purpose hosts.

In 1974, Vint Cerf, Yogen Dalal, and Carl Sunshine published the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) specification,, coining the term Internet as a shorthand for internetworking.

Documents that are connected by hyperlinks.

Hypertext

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Text displayed on a computer display or other electronic devices with references to other text that the reader can immediately access.

Text displayed on a computer display or other electronic devices with references to other text that the reader can immediately access.

Documents that are connected by hyperlinks.
Engineer Vannevar Bush wrote "As We May Think" in 1945 in which he described the Memex, a theoretical proto-hypertext device which in turn helped inspire the subsequent invention of hypertext.
Douglas Engelbart in 2009, at the 40th anniversary celebrations of "The Mother of All Demos" in San Francisco, a 90-minute 1968 presentation of the NLS computer system which was a combination of hardware and software that demonstrated many hypertext ideas.
Ted Nelson gives a presentation on Project Xanadu, a theoretical hypertext model conceived in the 1960s whose first and incomplete implementation was first published in 1998.
Hypertext Editing System (HES) IBM 2250 Display console – Brown University 1969

As implemented on the Web, hypertext enables the easy-to-use publication of information over the Internet.

Guide, the first significant hypertext system for personal computers, was developed by Peter J. Brown at the University of Kent in 1982.

A computer network diagram of client computers communicating with a server computer via the Internet

Server (computing)

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Piece of computer hardware or software that provides functionality for other programs or devices, called "clients".

Piece of computer hardware or software that provides functionality for other programs or devices, called "clients".

A computer network diagram of client computers communicating with a server computer via the Internet
Wikimedia Foundation rackmount servers in racks on a data center
First WWW server located at CERN with its original sticker that says: "This machine is a server. DO NOT POWER IT DOWN!!"
A network based on the client–server model where multiple individual clients request services and resources from centralized servers
A rack-mountable server with the top cover removed to reveal internal components
Sun's Cobalt Qube 3; a computer server appliance (2002); running Cobalt Linux (a customized version of Red Hat Linux, using the 2.2 Linux kernel), complete with the Apache web server.

This often implies that it is more powerful and reliable than standard personal computers, but alternatively, large computing clusters may be composed of many relatively simple, replaceable server components.

In computing, "server" dates at least to RFC 5 (1969), one of the earliest documents describing ARPANET (the predecessor of Internet), and is contrasted with "user", distinguishing two types of host: "server-host" and "user-host".