A report on Internet

The Internet Messenger by Buky Schwartz, located in Holon, Israel
T3 NSFNET Backbone, c. 1992.
ICANN headquarters in the Playa Vista neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, United States.
2007 map showing submarine fiberoptic telecommunication cables around the world.
Packet routing across the Internet involves several tiers of Internet service providers.
Number of mobile cellular subscriptions 2012–2016
As user data is processed through the protocol stack, each abstraction layer adds encapsulation information at the sending host. Data is transmitted over the wire at the link level between hosts and routers. Encapsulation is removed by the receiving host. Intermediate relays update link encapsulation at each hop, and inspect the IP layer for routing purposes.
Conceptual data flow in a simple network topology of two hosts (A and B) connected by a link between their respective routers. The application on each host executes read and write operations as if the processes were directly connected to each other by some kind of data pipe. After the establishment of this pipe, most details of the communication are hidden from each process, as the underlying principles of communication are implemented in the lower protocol layers. In analogy, at the transport layer the communication appears as host-to-host, without knowledge of the application data structures and the connecting routers, while at the internetworking layer, individual network boundaries are traversed at each router.
A DNS resolver consults three name servers to resolve the domain name user-visible "www.wikipedia.org" to determine the IPV4 Address 207.142.131.234
Creating a subnet by dividing the host identifier
This NeXT Computer was used by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN and became the world's first Web server.
Share of population using the Internet. See or edit source data.
Internet users per 100 population members and GDP per capita for selected countries.
Internet users per 100 inhabitants Source: International Telecommunication Union.
Internet users in 2015 as a percentage of a country's population Source: International Telecommunication Union.
'''Fixed broadband Internet subscriptions in 2012
as a percentage of a country's population''' Source: International Telecommunication Union.
'''Mobile broadband Internet subscriptions in 2012
as a percentage of a country's population''' Source: International Telecommunication Union.
Banner in Bangkok during the 2014 Thai coup d'état, informing the Thai public that 'like' or 'share' activities on social media could result in imprisonment (observed 30 June 2014).
Internet users by language<ref name=NIUBL-IWS>{{cite web|url=http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm|title=Number of Internet Users by Language|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120426122721/http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm|archive-date=26 April 2012|website=Internet World Stats, Miniwatts Marketing Group|date=31 May 2011|access-date=22 April 2012}}</ref>
Website content languages<ref name=UofCLBWApril2013>{{cite web|title=Usage of content languages for websites|url=http://w3techs.com/technologies/overview/content_language/all|work=W3Techs.com|access-date=26 April 2013|archive-url=https://www.webcitation.org/66ZQzUXh6?url=http://w3techs.com/technologies/overview/content_language/all|archive-date=31 March 2012|url-status=live}}</ref>

Global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices.

- Internet
The Internet Messenger by Buky Schwartz, located in Holon, Israel

176 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Encapsulation of application data carried by UDP to a link protocol frame

Internet Protocol

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Network layer communications protocol in the Internet protocol suite for relaying datagrams across network boundaries.

Network layer communications protocol in the Internet protocol suite for relaying datagrams across network boundaries.

Encapsulation of application data carried by UDP to a link protocol frame
A timeline for the development of the transmission control Protocol TCP and Internet Protocol IP.
First Internet demonstration, linking the ARPANET, PRNET, and SATNET on November 22, 1977

Its routing function enables internetworking, and essentially establishes the Internet.

Internet Connectivity Access layer

Internet access

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Internet Connectivity Access layer
Satellite Internet access via VSAT in Ghana
Service mark for GSMA
Wi-Fi logo
Wi-Fi range diagram
Broadband affordability in 2011 This map presents an overview of broadband affordability, as the relationship between average yearly income per capita and the cost of a broadband subscription (data referring to 2011). Source: Information Geographies at the Oxford Internet Institute.
Internet users in 2015 as a percentage of a country's population Source: International Telecommunication Union.
'''Fixed broadband Internet subscriptions in 2012
as a percentage of a country's population''' Source: International Telecommunication Union.
'''Mobile broadband Internet subscriptions in 2012
as a percentage of a country's population''' Source: International Telecommunication Union.
The digital divide measured in terms of bandwidth is not closing, but fluctuating up and down. Gini coefficients for telecommunication capacity (in kbit/s) among individuals worldwide

Internet access is the ability of individuals and organizations to connect to the Internet using computer terminals, computers, and other devices; and to access services such as email and the World Wide Web.

Donald Davies

9 links

Welsh computer scientist who was employed at the UK National Physical Laboratory (NPL).

Welsh computer scientist who was employed at the UK National Physical Laboratory (NPL).

The ARPANET project credited Davies for his influence, which was key to the development of the Internet.

This screenshot shows the "Inbox" page of an email client; users can see new emails and take actions, such as reading, deleting, saving, or responding to these messages.

Email

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Method of exchanging messages ("mail") between people using electronic devices.

Method of exchanging messages ("mail") between people using electronic devices.

This screenshot shows the "Inbox" page of an email client; users can see new emails and take actions, such as reading, deleting, saving, or responding to these messages.
The at sign, a part of every SMTP email address
When a "robot" on Wikipedia makes changes to image files, the uploader receives an email about the changes made.
Email operation
The interface of an email client, Thunderbird.

Email has been widely accepted by businesses, governments and non-governmental organizations in the developed world, and it is one of the key parts of an 'e-revolution' in workplace communication (with the other key plank being widespread adoption of highspeed Internet).

The hierarchical Domain Name System for class Internet, organized into zones, each served by a name server

Domain Name System

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The hierarchical Domain Name System for class Internet, organized into zones, each served by a name server
A DNS resolver that implements the iterative approach mandated by RFC 1034; in this case, the resolver consults three name servers to resolve the fully qualified domain name "www.wikipedia.org".
DNS resolution sequence

The Domain Name System (DNS) is the hierarchical and decentralized naming system used to identify computers reachable through the Internet or other Internet Protocol (IP) networks.

Original layout and name of Thefacebook in 2004, showing Al Pacino's face superimposed with binary numbers as Facebook's original logo, designed by co-founder Andrew McCollum

Facebook

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Online social media and social networking service owned by American company Meta Platforms.

Online social media and social networking service owned by American company Meta Platforms.

Original layout and name of Thefacebook in 2004, showing Al Pacino's face superimposed with binary numbers as Facebook's original logo, designed by co-founder Andrew McCollum
Mark Zuckerberg's profile (viewed when logged out)
Mark Zuckerberg, co-creator of Facebook, in his Harvard dorm room, 2005
Billboard on the Thomson Reuters building welcomes Facebook to NASDAQ, May 2012
Oculus VR headset
Aerial view of Meta HQ in Menlo Park, California
Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg and Facebook executives with President Donald Trump in September 2019
Profile shown on Thefacebook in 2005
Previous Facebook logo in use from August 23, 2005, until July 1, 2015
Facebook login/signup screen
Human billboard advertising Facebook Canberra in the City page at the National Multicultural Festival
A Facebook "White Hat" debit card, given to researchers who report security bugs.
Map showing the countries that are either currently blocking or have blocked Facebook in the past
Facebook acquired Onavo's virtual private network to harvest usage data on its competitors.
Graffiti in Berlin of Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg. The caption is a reference to George Orwell's novel Nineteen Eighty-Four.
Facebook on the ad:tech 2010
A man during the 2011 Egyptian protests carrying a card saying "Facebook,#jan25, The Egyptian Social Network"
Facebook parade float in San Francisco Pride 2014
Population pyramid of Facebook users by age {{as of|2010}}<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.insidefacebook.com/2010/01/04/december-data-on-facebook%E2%80%99s-us-growth-by-age-and-gender-beyond-100-million/|title=December Data on Facebook's US Growth by Age and Gender: Beyond 100 Million – Inside Facebook|work=Inside Facebook|access-date=October 7, 2014}}</ref>
Facebook login/signup screen

Facebook can be accessed from devices with Internet connectivity, such as personal computers, tablets and smartphones.

Example of residential network including VoIP

Voice over IP

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Example of residential network including VoIP
Asterisk-based PBX for small business

Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), also called IP telephony, is a method and group of technologies for the delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions over Internet Protocol (IP) networks, such as the Internet.

Wi-Fi

8 links

A newly installed home Wi-Fi network in April 2022.
Wi-Fi certification logo
An example of a service set called "WiFi Wikipedia" consisting of two Basic Service Sets. They are able to automatically roam between the two BSSs, without the user having to explicitly connect to the second network.
An outdoor Wi-Fi access point
Generic 802.11 Frame
Depiction of a Wi-Fi network in infrastructure mode. The device sends information wirelessly to another device, both connected to the local network, to print a document.
Access points send out beacon frames to announce the presence of networks.
Network planning frequency allocations for North America and Europe. Using these types of frequency allocations can help minimize co-channel and adjacent-channel interference.
In the 2.4 GHz wavebands as well as others, transmitters straddle multiple channels. Overlapping channels can suffer from interference unless this is a small portion of the total received power.
An embedded RouterBoard 112 with U.FL-RSMA pigtail and R52 mini PCI Wi-Fi card widely used by wireless Internet service providers (WISPs) in the Czech Republic
OSBRiDGE 3GN – 802.11n Access Point and UMTS/GSM Gateway in one device
An AirPort wireless G Wi-Fi adapter from an Apple MacBook
Wireless network interface controller Gigabyte GC-WB867D-I
Embedded serial-to-Wi-Fi module
A QR code to automate a Wi-Fi connection using WIFI:S:Wikipedia; T:WPA;P:Password1!;;

Wi-Fi or WiFi is a family of wireless network protocols, based on the IEEE 802.11 family of standards, which are commonly used for local area networking of devices and Internet access, allowing nearby digital devices to exchange data by radio waves.

Documents that are connected by hyperlinks.

Hypertext

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Text displayed on a computer display or other electronic devices with references to other text that the reader can immediately access.

Text displayed on a computer display or other electronic devices with references to other text that the reader can immediately access.

Documents that are connected by hyperlinks.
Engineer Vannevar Bush wrote "As We May Think" in 1945 in which he described the Memex, a theoretical proto-hypertext device which in turn helped inspire the subsequent invention of hypertext.
Douglas Engelbart in 2009, at the 40th anniversary celebrations of "The Mother of All Demos" in San Francisco, a 90-minute 1968 presentation of the NLS computer system which was a combination of hardware and software that demonstrated many hypertext ideas.
Ted Nelson gives a presentation on Project Xanadu, a theoretical hypertext model conceived in the 1960s whose first and incomplete implementation was first published in 1998.
Hypertext Editing System (HES) IBM 2250 Display console – Brown University 1969

As implemented on the Web, hypertext enables the easy-to-use publication of information over the Internet.

A diagram of Usenet servers and clients. The blue, green, and red dots on the servers represent the groups they carry. Arrows between servers indicate newsgroup group exchanges (feeds). Arrows between clients and servers indicate that a user is subscribed to a certain group and reads or submits articles.

Usenet

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Worldwide distributed discussion system available on computers.

Worldwide distributed discussion system available on computers.

A diagram of Usenet servers and clients. The blue, green, and red dots on the servers represent the groups they carry. Arrows between servers indicate newsgroup group exchanges (feeds). Arrows between clients and servers indicate that a user is subscribed to a certain group and reads or submits articles.
Usenet Provider Map
The "Big Nine" hierarchies of Usenet
A visual example of the many complex steps required to prepare data to be uploaded to Usenet newsgroups. These steps must be done again in reverse to download data from Usenet.
October 2020 screenshot showing 60 PB of usenet group data.

In the early 1990s, shortly before access to the Internet became commonly affordable, Usenet connections via Fidonet's dial-up BBS networks made long-distance or worldwide discussions and other communication widespread, not needing a server, just (local) telephone service.