A report on Internet

The Internet Messenger by Buky Schwartz, located in Holon, Israel
T3 NSFNET Backbone, c. 1992.
ICANN headquarters in the Playa Vista neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, United States.
2007 map showing submarine fiberoptic telecommunication cables around the world.
Packet routing across the Internet involves several tiers of Internet service providers.
Number of mobile cellular subscriptions 2012–2016
As user data is processed through the protocol stack, each abstraction layer adds encapsulation information at the sending host. Data is transmitted over the wire at the link level between hosts and routers. Encapsulation is removed by the receiving host. Intermediate relays update link encapsulation at each hop, and inspect the IP layer for routing purposes.
Conceptual data flow in a simple network topology of two hosts (A and B) connected by a link between their respective routers. The application on each host executes read and write operations as if the processes were directly connected to each other by some kind of data pipe. After the establishment of this pipe, most details of the communication are hidden from each process, as the underlying principles of communication are implemented in the lower protocol layers. In analogy, at the transport layer the communication appears as host-to-host, without knowledge of the application data structures and the connecting routers, while at the internetworking layer, individual network boundaries are traversed at each router.
A DNS resolver consults three name servers to resolve the domain name user-visible "www.wikipedia.org" to determine the IPV4 Address 207.142.131.234
Creating a subnet by dividing the host identifier
This NeXT Computer was used by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN and became the world's first Web server.
Share of population using the Internet. See or edit source data.
Internet users per 100 population members and GDP per capita for selected countries.
Internet users per 100 inhabitants Source: International Telecommunication Union.
Internet users in 2015 as a percentage of a country's population Source: International Telecommunication Union.
'''Fixed broadband Internet subscriptions in 2012
as a percentage of a country's population''' Source: International Telecommunication Union.
'''Mobile broadband Internet subscriptions in 2012
as a percentage of a country's population''' Source: International Telecommunication Union.
Banner in Bangkok during the 2014 Thai coup d'état, informing the Thai public that 'like' or 'share' activities on social media could result in imprisonment (observed 30 June 2014).
Internet users by language<ref name=NIUBL-IWS>{{cite web|url=http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm|title=Number of Internet Users by Language|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120426122721/http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm|archive-date=26 April 2012|website=Internet World Stats, Miniwatts Marketing Group|date=31 May 2011|access-date=22 April 2012}}</ref>
Website content languages<ref name=UofCLBWApril2013>{{cite web|title=Usage of content languages for websites|url=http://w3techs.com/technologies/overview/content_language/all|work=W3Techs.com|access-date=26 April 2013|archive-url=https://www.webcitation.org/66ZQzUXh6?url=http://w3techs.com/technologies/overview/content_language/all|archive-date=31 March 2012|url-status=live}}</ref>

Global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices.

- Internet
The Internet Messenger by Buky Schwartz, located in Holon, Israel

176 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Figure 2. The TCP/IP model or Internet layering scheme and its relation to some common protocols.

Communication protocol

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System of rules that allows two or more entities of a communications system to transmit information via any kind of variation of a physical quantity.

System of rules that allows two or more entities of a communications system to transmit information via any kind of variation of a physical quantity.

Figure 2. The TCP/IP model or Internet layering scheme and its relation to some common protocols.
Figure 3. Message flows using a protocol suite. Black loops show the actual messaging loops, red loops are the effective communication between layers enabled by the lower layers.
Figure 5: Protocol and software layering. The software modules implementing the protocols are represented by cubes. The information flow between the modules is represented by arrows. The (top two horizontal) red arrows are virtual. The blue lines mark the layer boundaries.

The development of a complete protocol suite by 1989, as outlined in and, laid the foundation for the growth of TCP/IP as a comprehensive protocol suite as the core component of the emerging Internet.

Internet connectivity options from end-user to tier 3/2 ISPs

Internet service provider

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Internet connectivity options from end-user to tier 3/2 ISPs
Stealth Communications in Manhattan installing fiber for provisioning Internet access
Tiers 1 and 2 ISP interconnections

An Internet service provider (ISP) is an organization that provides services for accessing, using, or participating in the Internet.

Leonard Kleinrock at a meeting of the members of the Internet Hall of Fame

Leonard Kleinrock

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American computer scientist.

American computer scientist.

Leonard Kleinrock at a meeting of the members of the Internet Hall of Fame
2012 Internet Hall of Fame inductees, including Leonard Kleinrock (seated, fifth from the left)

He played an influential role in the development of the ARPANET and supervised many graduate students who worked on the communication protocols for internetworking which led to the Internet.

NSF's three tiered network architecture

National Science Foundation Network

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Program of coordinated, evolving projects sponsored by the National Science Foundation (NSF) from 1985 to 1995 to promote advanced research and education networking in the United States.

Program of coordinated, evolving projects sponsored by the National Science Foundation (NSF) from 1985 to 1995 to promote advanced research and education networking in the United States.

NSF's three tiered network architecture
56K NSFNET Backbone, c. 1988
T1 NSFNET Backbone, c. 1991
T3 NSFNET Backbone, c. 1992
NSFNET Traffic 1991, NSFNET backbone nodes are shown at the top, regional networks below, traffic volume is depicted from purple (zero bytes) to white (100 billion bytes), visualization by NCSA using traffic data provided by the Merit Network.
Packet Traffic on the NSFNET Backbone, January 1988 to June 1994
New network architecture, c. 1995

The Hitchhiker's Guide became one of the first help manuals for the Internet.

Tim Berners-Lee in April 2009

HTML

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Standard markup language for documents designed to be displayed in a web browser.

Standard markup language for documents designed to be displayed in a web browser.

Tim Berners-Lee in April 2009
Logo of HTML5
HTML element content categories

In 1989, Berners-Lee wrote a memo proposing an Internet-based hypertext system.

IPv4 packet

IPv4

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Fourth version of the Internet Protocol (IP).

Fourth version of the Internet Protocol (IP).

IPv4 packet
Decomposition of the quad-dotted IPv4 address representation to its binary value

It is one of the core protocols of standards-based internetworking methods in the Internet and other packet-switched networks.

A telepresence system in 2007

Videotelephony

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Two-way or multipoint reception and transmission of audio and video signals by people in different locations for real time communication.

Two-way or multipoint reception and transmission of audio and video signals by people in different locations for real time communication.

A telepresence system in 2007
Videotelephony predicted to be in use by 2000, as envisioned in 1910 (artist's conception)
Videotelephone booth, 1922
Multiple user videoconferencing first being demonstrated with Stanford Research Institute's NLS computer technology (1968)
Global Schoolhouse students communicating via CU-SeeMe, shown here with a video frame rate between 0.9 and 3 frames per second (1993)
The Kyocera VP-210 Visual Phone was the first commercial mobile videophone (1999).
Russian President Dmitry Medvedev attending the Singapore APEC summit, holding a videoconference with Rashid Nurgaliyev via a Tactical MXP, after an arms depot explosion in Russia (2009)
A modern Avaya Nortel 1535 IP model broadband videophone (2008), using VoIP
USB webcam for PC
Dual display: An older Polycom VSX 7000 system and camera used for videoconferencing, with two displays for simultaneous broadcast from separate locations
A videoconference meeting facilitated by Google Hangouts
Deutsche Telekom T-View 100 ISDN-type videophone meant for home offices and small businesses, with a lens cover which can be rotated upward for privacy
The Tandberg E20 is an example of a SIP-only device. Such devices need to route calls through a Video Communication Server to be able to reach H.323 systems, a process known as "interworking" (2009).
A mobile video call between Sweden and Singapore made on a Sony Ericsson K800 (2007)
A Tandberg T3 high-resolution telepresence room in use (2008)
Indonesian and U.S. students participate in an educational videoconference (2010)
Video Interpreter sign used at VRS/VRI service locations
A deaf or hard-of-hearing person uses a Video Relay Service at his workplace to communicate with a hearing person in London (2007)
Dr. Heywood Floyd in the 1968 film 2001: A Space Odyssey calls his daughter on Earth

The development of advanced video codecs, more powerful CPUs, and high-bandwidth Internet telecommunication services in the late 1990s allowed videophones to provide high quality low-cost colour service between users almost any place in the world where the Internet is available.

A computer network diagram of client computers communicating with a server computer via the Internet

Server (computing)

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Piece of computer hardware or software that provides functionality for other programs or devices, called "clients".

Piece of computer hardware or software that provides functionality for other programs or devices, called "clients".

A computer network diagram of client computers communicating with a server computer via the Internet
Wikimedia Foundation rackmount servers in racks on a data center
First WWW server located at CERN with its original sticker that says: "This machine is a server. DO NOT POWER IT DOWN!!"
A network based on the client–server model where multiple individual clients request services and resources from centralized servers
A rack-mountable server with the top cover removed to reveal internal components
Sun's Cobalt Qube 3; a computer server appliance (2002); running Cobalt Linux (a customized version of Red Hat Linux, using the 2.2 Linux kernel), complete with the Apache web server.

In computing, "server" dates at least to RFC 5 (1969), one of the earliest documents describing ARPANET (the predecessor of Internet), and is contrasted with "user", distinguishing two types of host: "server-host" and "user-host".

An artist's depiction of a 2000s-era desktop-style personal computer, which includes a metal case with the computing components, a display monitor and a keyboard (mouse not shown)

Personal computer

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Multi-purpose microcomputer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.

Multi-purpose microcomputer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.

An artist's depiction of a 2000s-era desktop-style personal computer, which includes a metal case with the computing components, a display monitor and a keyboard (mouse not shown)
Commodore PET in 1983 (at the American Museum of Science and Energy), an early example of a personal computer
The 8-bit architecture Pravetz 82 computer produced in Bulgaria from 1982, in school class in the Soviet Union
Altair 8800 computer
The three personal computers referred to by Byte Magazine as the "1977 Trinity" of home computing: The Commodore PET, the Apple II, and the TRS-80 Model I.
IBM 5150, released in 1981
The 8-bit PMD 85 personal computer produced in 1985–1990 by the Tesla company in the former socialist Czechoslovakia
Sun SPARCstation 1+ from the early 1990s, with a 25 MHz RISC processor
A Dell OptiPlex desktop computer
A portable computer Cambridge Z88 released in 1987
A laptop computer
An HP netbook
HP Compaq tablet PC with rotating/removable keyboard
The LG G4, a typical smartphone
A screenshot of the LibreOffice Writer software
A screenshot of Krita, which is a raster graphics editor.
Children being taught how to use a laptop computer in 2005. An older (1990s-era) desktop personal computer's CRT monitor is visible in the background.
Personal computers worldwide in million distinguished by developed and developing world

Commercial Internet service providers emerged in the late 1980s, giving public access to the rapidly growing network.

Social media app icons on a smartphone

Social media

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Social media are interactive technologies that facilitate the creation and sharing of information, ideas, interests, and other forms of expression through virtual communities and networks.

Social media are interactive technologies that facilitate the creation and sharing of information, ideas, interests, and other forms of expression through virtual communities and networks.

Social media app icons on a smartphone
SixDegrees, launched in 1997, is often regarded as the first social media site.

1) Social media are interactive Web 2.0 Internet-based applications.