Internet

The Internet Messenger by Buky Schwartz, located in Holon, Israel
T3 NSFNET Backbone, c. 1992.
ICANN headquarters in the Playa Vista neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, United States.
2007 map showing submarine fiberoptic telecommunication cables around the world.
Packet routing across the Internet involves several tiers of Internet service providers.
Number of mobile cellular subscriptions 2012–2016
As user data is processed through the protocol stack, each abstraction layer adds encapsulation information at the sending host. Data is transmitted over the wire at the link level between hosts and routers. Encapsulation is removed by the receiving host. Intermediate relays update link encapsulation at each hop, and inspect the IP layer for routing purposes.
Conceptual data flow in a simple network topology of two hosts (A and B) connected by a link between their respective routers. The application on each host executes read and write operations as if the processes were directly connected to each other by some kind of data pipe. After the establishment of this pipe, most details of the communication are hidden from each process, as the underlying principles of communication are implemented in the lower protocol layers. In analogy, at the transport layer the communication appears as host-to-host, without knowledge of the application data structures and the connecting routers, while at the internetworking layer, individual network boundaries are traversed at each router.
A DNS resolver consults three name servers to resolve the domain name user-visible "www.wikipedia.org" to determine the IPV4 Address 207.142.131.234
Creating a subnet by dividing the host identifier
This NeXT Computer was used by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN and became the world's first Web server.
Share of population using the Internet. See or edit source data.
Internet users per 100 population members and GDP per capita for selected countries.
Internet users per 100 inhabitants Source: International Telecommunication Union.
Internet users in 2015 as a percentage of a country's population Source: International Telecommunication Union.
'''Fixed broadband Internet subscriptions in 2012
as a percentage of a country's population''' Source: International Telecommunication Union.
'''Mobile broadband Internet subscriptions in 2012
as a percentage of a country's population''' Source: International Telecommunication Union.
Banner in Bangkok during the 2014 Thai coup d'état, informing the Thai public that 'like' or 'share' activities on social media could result in imprisonment (observed 30 June 2014).
Internet users by language<ref name=NIUBL-IWS>{{cite web|url=http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm|title=Number of Internet Users by Language|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120426122721/http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm|archive-date=26 April 2012|website=Internet World Stats, Miniwatts Marketing Group|date=31 May 2011|access-date=22 April 2012}}</ref>
Website content languages<ref name=UofCLBWApril2013>{{cite web|title=Usage of content languages for websites|url=http://w3techs.com/technologies/overview/content_language/all|work=W3Techs.com|access-date=26 April 2013|archive-url=https://www.webcitation.org/66ZQzUXh6?url=http://w3techs.com/technologies/overview/content_language/all|archive-date=31 March 2012|url-status=live}}</ref>

Global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices.

- Internet
The Internet Messenger by Buky Schwartz, located in Holon, Israel

174 related topics

Alpha

An artist's depiction of a 2000s-era desktop-style personal computer, which includes a metal case with the computing components, a display monitor and a keyboard (mouse not shown)

Personal computer

Multi-purpose microcomputer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.

Multi-purpose microcomputer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.

An artist's depiction of a 2000s-era desktop-style personal computer, which includes a metal case with the computing components, a display monitor and a keyboard (mouse not shown)
Commodore PET in 1983 (at the American Museum of Science and Energy), an early example of a personal computer
The 8-bit architecture Pravetz 82 computer produced in Bulgaria from 1982, in school class in the Soviet Union
Altair 8800 computer
The three personal computers referred to by Byte Magazine as the "1977 Trinity" of home computing: The Commodore PET, the Apple II, and the TRS-80 Model I.
IBM 5150, released in 1981
The 8-bit PMD 85 personal computer produced in 1985–1990 by the Tesla company in the former socialist Czechoslovakia
Sun SPARCstation 1+ from the early 1990s, with a 25 MHz RISC processor
A Dell OptiPlex desktop computer
A portable computer Cambridge Z88 released in 1987
A laptop computer
An HP netbook
HP Compaq tablet PC with rotating/removable keyboard
The LG G4, a typical smartphone
A screenshot of the LibreOffice Writer software
A screenshot of Krita, which is a raster graphics editor.
Children being taught how to use a laptop computer in 2005. An older (1990s-era) desktop personal computer's CRT monitor is visible in the background.
Personal computers worldwide in million distinguished by developed and developing world

Commercial Internet service providers emerged in the late 1980s, giving public access to the rapidly growing network.

A peer-to-peer (P2P) network in which interconnected nodes ("peers") share resources amongst each other without the use of a centralized administrative system

Peer-to-peer

For other uses, see Peer-to-peer (disambiguation).

For other uses, see Peer-to-peer (disambiguation).

A peer-to-peer (P2P) network in which interconnected nodes ("peers") share resources amongst each other without the use of a centralized administrative system
A network based on the client–server model, where individual clients request services and resources from centralized servers
SETI@home was established in 1999
Overlay network diagram for an unstructured P2P network, illustrating the ad hoc nature of the connections between nodes
Overlay network diagram for a structured P2P network, using a distributed hash table (DHT) to identify and locate nodes/resources
Distributed hash tables
Search results for the query "software libre", using YaCy a free distributed search engine that runs on a peer-to-peer network instead making requests to centralized index servers (like Google, Yahoo, and other corporate search engines)
Torrent file connect peers
The BitTorrent protocol: In this animation, the colored bars beneath all of the 7 clients in the upper region above represent the file being shared, with each color representing an individual piece of the file. After the initial pieces transfer from the seed (large system at the bottom), the pieces are individually transferred from client to client. The original seeder only needs to send out one copy of the file for all the clients to receive a copy.

In such social contexts, peer-to-peer as a meme refers to the egalitarian social networking that has emerged throughout society, enabled by Internet technologies in general.

400px

Classless Inter-Domain Routing

Method for allocating IP addresses and for IP routing.

Method for allocating IP addresses and for IP routing.

400px
400px
A Table of CIDR prefixes for IPv6, it shows the number of corresponding equivalent subnets for each prefix, as well as the number of the host identifier bits.

The Internet Engineering Task Force introduced CIDR in 1993 to replace the previous classful network addressing architecture on the Internet.

CompuServe

American online service provider, the first major commercial one in the United States – described in 1994 as "the oldest of the Big Three information services (the others are Prodigy and America Online)."

American online service provider, the first major commercial one in the United States – described in 1994 as "the oldest of the Big Three information services (the others are Prodigy and America Online)."

The WOW! logo

CompuServe was the first online service to offer Internet connectivity, albeit with limited access, as early as 1989, when it connected its proprietary e-mail service to allow incoming and outgoing messages to be exchanged with Internet-based e-mail addresses.

An iPhone smartphone and iPad tablet—two examples of mobile devices.

Mobile device

Computer small enough to hold and operate in the hand.

Computer small enough to hold and operate in the hand.

An iPhone smartphone and iPad tablet—two examples of mobile devices.
Smartphones, handheld mobile devices
Smartwatches, handheld mobile devices

Some mobile devices can be used as mobile Internet devices to access the Internet while moving, but they do not need to do this and many phone functions or applications are still operational even while disconnected from the Internet.

Chantenay-Saint-Imbert railway station

Louis Pouzin

French computer scientist.

French computer scientist.

Chantenay-Saint-Imbert railway station

His work, and that of his colleagues Hubert Zimmerman and Gérard Le Lann, were acknowledged by Vinton Cerf as substantial contributions to the design of TCP/IP, the protocol suite used by the Internet.

A human computer, with microscope and calculator, 1952

Computer

Digital electronic machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically.

Digital electronic machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically.

A human computer, with microscope and calculator, 1952
The Ishango bone, a bone tool dating back to prehistoric Africa.
The Chinese suanpan (算盘). The number represented on this abacus is 6,302,715,408.
The Antikythera mechanism, dating back to ancient Greece circa 150&ndash;100 BC, is an early analog computing device.
A slide rule.
A portion of Babbage's Difference engine.
Sir William Thomson's third tide-predicting machine design, 1879–81
Replica of Konrad Zuse's Z3, the first fully automatic, digital (electromechanical) computer.
Colossus, the first electronic digital programmable computing device, was used to break German ciphers during World War II. It is seen here in use at Bletchley Park in 1943.
ENIAC was the first electronic, Turing-complete device, and performed ballistics trajectory calculations for the United States Army.
A section of the Manchester Baby, the first electronic stored-program computer
Bipolar junction transistor (BJT)
MOSFET (MOS transistor), showing gate (G), body (B), source (S) and drain (D) terminals. The gate is separated from the body by an insulating layer (pink).
Diagram showing how a particular MIPS architecture instruction would be decoded by the control system
Magnetic-core memory (using magnetic cores) was the computer memory of choice in the 1960s, until it was replaced by semiconductor memory (using MOS memory cells).
Hard disk drives are common storage devices used with computers.
Cray designed many supercomputers that used multiprocessing heavily.
Replica of the Manchester Baby, the world's first electronic stored-program computer, at the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester, England
A 1970s punched card containing one line from a Fortran program. The card reads: "Z(1) = Y + W(1)" and is labeled "PROJ039" for identification purposes.
The actual first computer bug, a moth found trapped on a relay of the Harvard Mark II computer
Visualization of a portion of the routes on the Internet

Computers power the Internet, which links billions of other computers and users.

A computer network diagram of clients communicating with a server via the Internet

Client–server model

Distributed application structure that partitions tasks or workloads between the providers of a resource or service, called servers, and service requesters, called clients.

Distributed application structure that partitions tasks or workloads between the providers of a resource or service, called servers, and service requesters, called clients.

A computer network diagram of clients communicating with a server via the Internet

Development of DEL was just beginning in 1969, the year that the United States Department of Defense established ARPANET (predecessor of Internet).

While most aspects of computer security involve digital measures such as electronic passwords and encryption, physical security measures such as metal locks are still used to prevent unauthorized tampering.

Computer security

Protection of computer systems and networks from information disclosure, theft of, or damage to their hardware, software, or electronic data, as well as from the disruption or misdirection of the services they provide.

Protection of computer systems and networks from information disclosure, theft of, or damage to their hardware, software, or electronic data, as well as from the disruption or misdirection of the services they provide.

While most aspects of computer security involve digital measures such as electronic passwords and encryption, physical security measures such as metal locks are still used to prevent unauthorized tampering.
An example of a phishing email, disguised as an official email from a (fictional) bank. The sender is attempting to trick the recipient into revealing confidential information by "confirming" it at the phisher's website. Note the misspelling of the words received and discrepancy as and, respectively. Although the URL of the bank's webpage appears to be legitimate, the hyperlink points at the phisher's webpage.
Cryptographic techniques involve transforming information, scrambling it, so it becomes unreadable during transmission. The intended recipient can unscramble the message; ideally, eavesdroppers cannot.

The field has become significant due to the expanded reliance on computer systems, the Internet, and wireless network standards such as Bluetooth and Wi-Fi, and due to the growth of "smart" devices, including smartphones, televisions, and the various devices that constitute the Internet of things (IoT).

Store closing flags outside a Toys R Us in Deptford, New Jersey. Despite investments, the chain struggled to win market share in the age of digital commerce.

E-commerce

Store closing flags outside a Toys R Us in Deptford, New Jersey. Despite investments, the chain struggled to win market share in the age of digital commerce.
An example of an older generation of avatar-style automated online assistant on a merchandising website.

E-commerce (electronic commerce) is the activity of electronically buying or selling of products on online services or over the Internet.