Internet

The Internet Messenger by Buky Schwartz, located in Holon, Israel
T3 NSFNET Backbone, c. 1992.
ICANN headquarters in the Playa Vista neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, United States.
2007 map showing submarine fiberoptic telecommunication cables around the world.
Packet routing across the Internet involves several tiers of Internet service providers.
Number of mobile cellular subscriptions 2012–2016
As user data is processed through the protocol stack, each abstraction layer adds encapsulation information at the sending host. Data is transmitted over the wire at the link level between hosts and routers. Encapsulation is removed by the receiving host. Intermediate relays update link encapsulation at each hop, and inspect the IP layer for routing purposes.
Conceptual data flow in a simple network topology of two hosts (A and B) connected by a link between their respective routers. The application on each host executes read and write operations as if the processes were directly connected to each other by some kind of data pipe. After the establishment of this pipe, most details of the communication are hidden from each process, as the underlying principles of communication are implemented in the lower protocol layers. In analogy, at the transport layer the communication appears as host-to-host, without knowledge of the application data structures and the connecting routers, while at the internetworking layer, individual network boundaries are traversed at each router.
A DNS resolver consults three name servers to resolve the domain name user-visible "www.wikipedia.org" to determine the IPV4 Address 207.142.131.234
Creating a subnet by dividing the host identifier
This NeXT Computer was used by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN and became the world's first Web server.
Share of population using the Internet. See or edit source data.
Internet users per 100 population members and GDP per capita for selected countries.
Internet users per 100 inhabitants Source: International Telecommunication Union.
Internet users in 2015 as a percentage of a country's population Source: International Telecommunication Union.
'''Fixed broadband Internet subscriptions in 2012
as a percentage of a country's population''' Source: International Telecommunication Union.
'''Mobile broadband Internet subscriptions in 2012
as a percentage of a country's population''' Source: International Telecommunication Union.
Banner in Bangkok during the 2014 Thai coup d'état, informing the Thai public that 'like' or 'share' activities on social media could result in imprisonment (observed 30 June 2014).
Internet users by language<ref name=NIUBL-IWS>{{cite web|url=http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm|title=Number of Internet Users by Language|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120426122721/http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm|archive-date=26 April 2012|website=Internet World Stats, Miniwatts Marketing Group|date=31 May 2011|access-date=22 April 2012}}</ref>
Website content languages<ref name=UofCLBWApril2013>{{cite web|title=Usage of content languages for websites|url=http://w3techs.com/technologies/overview/content_language/all|work=W3Techs.com|access-date=26 April 2013|archive-url=https://www.webcitation.org/66ZQzUXh6?url=http://w3techs.com/technologies/overview/content_language/all|archive-date=31 March 2012|url-status=live}}</ref>

Global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices.

- Internet
The Internet Messenger by Buky Schwartz, located in Holon, Israel

174 related topics

Alpha

Internet traffic

Internet traffic is the flow of data within the entire Internet, or in certain network links of its constituent networks.

Business card with UUCP email address

UUCP

Acronym of Unix-to-Unix Copy.

Acronym of Unix-to-Unix Copy.

Business card with UUCP email address

Packages such as UUSLAVE/GNUUCP (John Gilmore, Garry Paxinos, Tim Pozar), UUPC/extended (Drew Derbyshire of Kendra Electronic Wonderworks) and FSUUCP (Christopher Ambler of IODesign), brought early Internet connectivity to personal computers, expanding the network beyond the interconnected university systems.

A diagram of Usenet servers and clients. The blue, green, and red dots on the servers represent the groups they carry. Arrows between servers indicate newsgroup group exchanges (feeds). Arrows between clients and servers indicate that a user is subscribed to a certain group and reads or submits articles.

Usenet

Worldwide distributed discussion system available on computers.

Worldwide distributed discussion system available on computers.

A diagram of Usenet servers and clients. The blue, green, and red dots on the servers represent the groups they carry. Arrows between servers indicate newsgroup group exchanges (feeds). Arrows between clients and servers indicate that a user is subscribed to a certain group and reads or submits articles.
Usenet Provider Map
The "Big Nine" hierarchies of Usenet
A visual example of the many complex steps required to prepare data to be uploaded to Usenet newsgroups. These steps must be done again in reverse to download data from Usenet.
October 2020 screenshot showing 60 PB of usenet group data.

In the early 1990s, shortly before access to the Internet became commonly affordable, Usenet connections via Fidonet's dial-up BBS networks made long-distance or worldwide discussions and other communication widespread, not needing a server, just (local) telephone service.

Figure 2. The TCP/IP model or Internet layering scheme and its relation to some common protocols.

Communication protocol

System of rules that allows two or more entities of a communications system to transmit information via any kind of variation of a physical quantity.

System of rules that allows two or more entities of a communications system to transmit information via any kind of variation of a physical quantity.

Figure 2. The TCP/IP model or Internet layering scheme and its relation to some common protocols.
Figure 3. Message flows using a protocol suite. Black loops show the actual messaging loops, red loops are the effective communication between layers enabled by the lower layers.
Figure 5: Protocol and software layering. The software modules implementing the protocols are represented by cubes. The information flow between the modules is represented by arrows. The (top two horizontal) red arrows are virtual. The blue lines mark the layer boundaries.

The development of a complete protocol suite by 1989, as outlined in and, laid the foundation for the growth of TCP/IP as a comprehensive protocol suite as the core component of the emerging Internet.

A handheld on-board communication station of the maritime mobile service

Edholm's law

Edholm's law, proposed by and named after Phil Edholm, refers to the observation that the three categories of telecommunication, namely wireless (mobile), nomadic (wireless without mobility) and wired networks (fixed), are in lockstep and gradually converging.

Edholm's law, proposed by and named after Phil Edholm, refers to the observation that the three categories of telecommunication, namely wireless (mobile), nomadic (wireless without mobility) and wired networks (fixed), are in lockstep and gradually converging.

A handheld on-board communication station of the maritime mobile service

The trend is evident in the cases of Internet, cellular (mobile), wireless LAN and wireless personal area networks.

PC clients communicating via network with a web server serving static content only.

Web server

Computer software and underlying hardware that accepts requests via HTTP or its secure variant HTTPS.

Computer software and underlying hardware that accepts requests via HTTP or its secure variant HTTPS.

PC clients communicating via network with a web server serving static content only.
The inside and front of a Dell PowerEdge server, a computer designed to be mounted in a rack mount environment. It is often used as a web server.
Multiple web servers may be used for a high traffic website.
Web server farm with thousands of web servers used for super-high traffic websites.
ADSL modem running an embedded web server serving dynamic web pages used for modem configuration.
First web proposal (1989) evaluated as "vague but exciting..."
The world's first web server, a NeXT Computer workstation with Ethernet, 1990. The case label reads: "This machine is a server. DO NOT POWER IT DOWN!!"
Sun's Cobalt Qube 3 – a computer server appliance (2002, discontinued)
PC clients connected to a web server via Internet
PC clients communicating via network with a web server serving static and dynamic content.
Directory listing dynamically generated by a web server.
Chart:
Market share of all sites for most popular web servers 2005–2021
Chart:
Market share of all sites for most popular web servers 1995–2005

A high-traffic Internet website might handle requests with hundreds of servers that run on racks of high-speed computers.

Tim Berners-Lee in April 2009

HTML

Standard markup language for documents designed to be displayed in a web browser.

Standard markup language for documents designed to be displayed in a web browser.

Tim Berners-Lee in April 2009
Logo of HTML5

In 1989, Berners-Lee wrote a memo proposing an Internet-based hypertext system.

A computer network diagram of client computers communicating with a server computer via the Internet

Server (computing)

Piece of computer hardware or software that provides functionality for other programs or devices, called "clients".

Piece of computer hardware or software that provides functionality for other programs or devices, called "clients".

A computer network diagram of client computers communicating with a server computer via the Internet
Wikimedia Foundation rackmount servers in racks on a data center
First WWW server located at CERN with its original sticker that says: "This machine is a server. DO NOT POWER IT DOWN!!"
A network based on the client–server model where multiple individual clients request services and resources from centralized servers
A rack-mountable server with the top cover removed to reveal internal components
Sun's Cobalt Qube 3; a computer server appliance (2002); running Cobalt Linux (a customized version of Red Hat Linux, using the 2.2 Linux kernel), complete with the Apache web server.

In computing, "server" dates at least to RFC 5 (1969), one of the earliest documents describing ARPANET (the predecessor of Internet), and is contrasted with "user", distinguishing two types of host: "server-host" and "user-host".

IPv4 packet

IPv4

Fourth version of the Internet Protocol (IP).

Fourth version of the Internet Protocol (IP).

IPv4 packet
Decomposition of the quad-dotted IPv4 address representation to its binary value

It is one of the core protocols of standards-based internetworking methods in the Internet and other packet-switched networks.

IPv6 header

IPv6

IPv6 header
Glossary of terms used for IPv6 addresses
Decomposition of the dot-decimal IPv4 address representation to its binary value
Multicast structure in IPv6
Several examples of IPv6 extension headers
IPv6 packet header
A general structure for an IPv6 unicast address
The Link-Local Unicast Address structure in IPv6
The global unicast address structure in IPv6
IPv6 Prefix Assignment mechanism with IANA, RIRs, and ISPs
IPv4-compatible IPv6 unicast address
IPv4-mapped IPv6 unicast address
A timeline for the standards governing IPv6
Monthly IPv6 allocations per regional Internet registry (RIR)

Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is the most recent version of the Internet Protocol (IP), the communications protocol that provides an identification and location system for computers on networks and routes traffic across the Internet.