Internet access

Internet Connectivity Access layer
Satellite Internet access via VSAT in Ghana
Service mark for GSMA
Wi-Fi logo
Wi-Fi range diagram
Broadband affordability in 2011 This map presents an overview of broadband affordability, as the relationship between average yearly income per capita and the cost of a broadband subscription (data referring to 2011). Source: Information Geographies at the Oxford Internet Institute.
Internet users in 2015 as a percentage of a country's population Source: International Telecommunication Union.
'''Fixed broadband Internet subscriptions in 2012
as a percentage of a country's population''' Source: International Telecommunication Union.
'''Mobile broadband Internet subscriptions in 2012
as a percentage of a country's population''' Source: International Telecommunication Union.
The digital divide measured in terms of bandwidth is not closing, but fluctuating up and down. Gini coefficients for telecommunication capacity (in kbit/s) among individuals worldwide

Ability of individuals and organizations to connect to the Internet using computer terminals, computers, and other devices; and to access services such as email and the World Wide Web.

- Internet access

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Digital subscriber line

Family of technologies that are used to transmit digital data over telephone lines.

DSL SoC
A DSL modem
Example of a DSLAM from 2006
DSL Connection schematic
DSL Modem schematic

In telecommunications marketing, the term DSL is widely understood to mean asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL), the most commonly installed DSL technology, for Internet access.

Asymmetric digital subscriber line

Type of digital subscriber line (DSL) technology, a data communications technology that enables faster data transmission over copper telephone lines than a conventional voiceband modem can provide.

A gateway is commonly used to make an ADSL connection
Modern ADSL filter/splitter (left) and filter (right)
DSL SoC
Frequency plan for ADSL Annex A. Red area is the frequency range used by normal voice telephony (PSTN), the green (upstream) and blue (downstream) areas are used for ADSL.
Frequency spectrum of modem on ADSL line
Frequency plan for common ADSL standards and annexes.

Providers usually market ADSL as an Internet access service primarily for downloading content from the Internet, but not for serving content accessed by others.

Fiber to the x

FTTB, FTTC, FTTD, FTTH, FTTK, FTTN, and FTTP all redirect here.

A schematic illustrating how FTTX (Node, Curb, Building, Home) architectures vary with regard to the distance between the optical fiber and the end user. The building on the left is the central office; the building on the right is one of the buildings served by the central office. Dotted rectangles represent separate living or office spaces within the same building.
Fiber-optic cable being pulled underneath NYC's streets
An optical fiber jack (cover removed) in a residence with FTTH service
Inside an FTTN or FTTC fiber cabinet. The left side contains the fiber and a DSLAM, and the right side contains the copper and punch down blocks for a form of DSL such as VDSL
FTTC during installation in Germany
Comparison showing how a typical AON (a star network capable of multicasting) handles downstream traffic differently from a typical PON (a star network having multiple splitters housed in the same cabinet)

Fixed wireless and mobile wireless technologies such as Wi-Fi, WiMAX and 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) are an alternative for providing Internet access.

Dial-up Internet access

[[File:56k-modem-dial-in-server.webm|thumb|Dial-in server

Active modem USRobotics courer 28800-bit/s
Banks of modems used by an ISP to provide dial-up internet service
An example handshake of a dial-up modem
A TiVo Series2 video recorder's back panel. The telephone socket, located near the cooling fan exhaust, is a way for the machine to download required TV guide data.
A Sky TV receiver, made by Thomson, has a telephone socket at the left of its back panel. This connection serves as a way for the machine to communicate to the company, as a TV satellite dish cannot transmit signals back to the satellite.

]]Dial-up Internet access is a form of Internet access that uses the facilities of the public switched telephone network (PSTN) to establish a connection to an Internet service provider (ISP) by dialing a telephone number on a conventional telephone line.

Email

Method of exchanging messages ("mail") between people using electronic devices.

This screenshot shows the "Inbox" page of an email client; users can see new emails and take actions, such as reading, deleting, saving, or responding to these messages.
The at sign, a part of every SMTP email address
When a "robot" on Wikipedia makes changes to image files, the uploader receives an email about the changes made.
Email operation
The interface of an email client, Thunderbird.

Email operates across computer networks, primarily the Internet, and also local area networks.

Internet service provider

Organization that provides services for accessing, using, or participating in the Internet.

Internet connectivity options from end-user to tier 3/2 ISPs
Stealth Communications in Manhattan installing fiber for provisioning Internet access
Tiers 1 and 2 ISP interconnections

Internet services typically provided by ISPs can include Internet access, Internet transit, domain name registration, web hosting, Usenet service, and colocation.

Internet café

Internet café and library on the Golden Princess cruise ship
Combination Internet café and sub post office in Münster, Germany
SF Net logo circa 1993, San Francisco, Calif.
Cyberia, an early Internet café in London, 1994
A solar powered Internet café in San Juan del Sur, Nicaragua.
An Internet café in Kulim, Kedah, Malaysia.
Internet Cafe, Alice Springs, Australia (pictured 2005)
A notice about anti-terrorism related ID requirements on the door of an Italian Internet café. (Florence, May 2006)
Internet café in Riau, Indonesia
An Internet café in Mombasa, Kenya, combined with other services.
An Internet café in Cebu City, Philippines.

An Internet café, also known as a cybercafé, is a café (or a convenience store or a fully dedicated Internet access business) that provides Internet access to the public.

Hotspot (Wi-Fi)

A diagram showing a Wi-Fi network
Public park in Brooklyn, New York has free Wi-Fi from a local corporation.

A hotspot is a physical location where people can obtain Internet access, typically using Wi-Fi technology, via a wireless local-area network (WLAN) using a router connected to an Internet service provider.

WiMAX

Family of wireless broadband communication standards based on the IEEE 802.16 set of standards, which provide physical layer (PHY) and media access control (MAC) options.

WiMAX base station equipment with a sector antenna and wireless modem on top
A WiMAX USB modem for mobile access to the Internet
Airstream 1200 USB Modem
The WiMAX Forum architecture
Picture of a WiMAX MIMO board
WiSOA logo
Speed vs. mobility of wireless systems: Wi-Fi, High Speed Packet Access (HSPA), Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), GSM

WiMAX can provide at-home or mobile Internet access across whole cities or countries.

Cable Internet access

Internet Connectivity Access layer

In telecommunications, cable Internet access, shortened to cable Internet, is a form of broadband Internet access which uses the same infrastructure as a cable television.