Internet censorship

Internet freedomcensorshipInternet filteringblockedanti-censorshipcensoringCensorship of the Internetblockingcensorship on the internetWeb censorship
Internet censorship is the control or suppression of what can be accessed, published, or viewed on the Internet enacted by regulators, or on their own initiative.wikipedia
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DNS hijacking

DNS hijackerDNS hijackershijacked
These modifications may be made for malicious purposes such as phishing, for self-serving purposes by Internet service providers (ISPs), by the Great Firewall of China and public/router-based online DNS server providers to direct users' web traffic to the ISP's own web servers where advertisements can be served, statistics collected, or other purposes of the ISP; and by DNS service providers to block access to selected domains as a form of censorship.

Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society

Berkman Center for Internet & SocietyBerkman Center for Internet and SocietyBerkman Center
The Berkman Klein Center's main research topics are Teens and Media, Monitoring, Privacy, Digital art, Internet Governance, Cloud Computing and Internet censorship.

Data haven

datahavendata havens
Pseudonymity and data havens (such as Freenet) protect free speech using technologies that guarantee material cannot be removed and prevents the identification of authors.
Reasons for establishing data havens include access to free political speech for users in countries where censorship of the Internet is practiced.

Global Network Initiative

Organizations such as the Global Network Initiative, the Electronic Frontier Foundation, Amnesty International, and the American Civil Liberties Union have successfully lobbied some vendors such as Websense to make changes to their software, to refrain from doing business with repressive governments, and to educate schools who have inadvertently reconfigured their filtering software too strictly.
The Global Network Initiative (GNI) is a non-governmental organization with the dual goals of preventing Internet censorship by authoritarian governments and protecting the Internet privacy rights of individuals.

Geo-blocking

geo-blockedgeoblockinggeoblocked
As with other forms of internet censorship, geo-blocking can be circumvented.

University of Toronto

TorontoToronto UniversityThe University of Toronto
Writing in 2009 Ronald Deibert, professor of political science at the University of Toronto and co-founder and one of the principal investigators of the OpenNet Initiative, and, writing in 2011, Evgeny Morzov, a visiting scholar at Stanford University and an Op-Ed contributor to the New York Times, explain that companies in the United States, Finland, France, Germany, Britain, Canada, and South Africa are in part responsible for the increasing sophistication of online content filtering worldwide.
The Munk School is also home to the G20 Research Group, which conducts independent monitoring and analysis on the Group of Twenty, and the Citizen Lab, which conducts research on Internet censorship as a joint founder of the OpenNet Initiative.

OpenNet Initiative

Open Net InitiativeONIOpenNet Initiative Asia
Writing in 2009 Ronald Deibert, professor of political science at the University of Toronto and co-founder and one of the principal investigators of the OpenNet Initiative, and, writing in 2011, Evgeny Morzov, a visiting scholar at Stanford University and an Op-Ed contributor to the New York Times, explain that companies in the United States, Finland, France, Germany, Britain, Canada, and South Africa are in part responsible for the increasing sophistication of online content filtering worldwide.

John Gilmore (activist)

John GilmoreGilmore, JohnJohn Gillmore
Gilmore famously stated of Internet censorship that "The Net interprets censorship as damage and routes around it".

Censorship

censoredcensorcensors
Internet censorship is the control or suppression of what can be accessed, published, or viewed on the Internet enacted by regulators, or on their own initiative.
A BBC World Service poll of 27,973 adults in 26 countries, including 14,306 Internet users, was conducted between 30 November 2009 and 7 February 2010.

Censorship of Twitter

Twitterban of Twitterblocked
Censorship of Twitter refers to Internet censorship by governments that block access to Twitter, or censorship by Twitter itself.

Internet censorship circumvention

circumventioncircumventedcircumventing Internet censorship
Internet censorship circumvention is the use of various methods and tools to bypass internet censorship.

Internet

onlinethe Internetweb
Internet censorship is the control or suppression of what can be accessed, published, or viewed on the Internet enacted by regulators, or on their own initiative.
However, incidents of politically motivated Internet censorship have now been recorded in many countries, including western democracies.

Internet censorship and surveillance by country

Internet censorship by countryinternet freedomInternet censorship and surveillance
Internet Censorship and Surveillance World Map.svg''' The ratings produced by several of these organizations are summarized in the Internet censorship by country and the Censorship by country articles.
This list of Internet censorship and surveillance by country provides information on the types and levels of Internet censorship and surveillance that is occurring in countries around the world.

Censorship of Wikipedia

blockedBlocking of Wikipedia by ChinaBlocking of Wikipedia in mainland China
Some instances are examples of widespread internet censorship in general that includes Wikipedia content.

Electronic Frontier Foundation

EFFElectronic Freedom FoundationElectronic Frontiers Foundation
Organizations such as the Global Network Initiative, the Electronic Frontier Foundation, Amnesty International, and the American Civil Liberties Union have successfully lobbied some vendors such as Websense to make changes to their software, to refrain from doing business with repressive governments, and to educate schools who have inadvertently reconfigured their filtering software too strictly.

Anonymizer

anonymous proxiesAnonymizing proxyanonymity
Some countries apply heavy censorship on the internet.

Domain Name System

DNSresource recordDNS record
This deficiency is commonly used by cybercriminals and network operators for marketing purposes, user authentication on captive portals and censorship.

Splinternet

cyberbalkanizationcyber-balkanization
The term "splinternet" is sometimes used to describe the effects of national firewalls.

Blue Coat Systems

Blue CoatCacheFlowProxySG
On 12 March 2013 in a Special report on Internet Surveillance, Reporters Without Borders named five "Corporate Enemies of the Internet": Amesys (France), Blue Coat Systems (U.S.), Gamma (UK and Germany), Hacking Team (Italy), and Trovicor (Germany).
In October 2011, the U.S. government examined claims made by Telecomix, a hacktivist group, that Syria was using Blue Coat Systems products for internet censorship.

Internet censorship in Russia

Russian Internet blacklistblacklist241-FZ
The 2014 report assessed 65 countries and reported that 36 countries experienced a negative trajectory in Internet freedom since the previous year, with the most significant declines in Russia, Turkey and Ukraine.
The list is used for the censorship of individual URLs, domain names, and IP addresses.

Internet in Egypt

EgyptBroadband internet in Egyptcensorship of the Internet in Egypt
Of the 41 separate countries classified, seven were found to show no evidence of filtering in all three areas (Egypt, France, Germany, India, Ukraine, United Kingdom, and United States), while one was found to engage in pervasive filtering in all three areas (China), 13 were found to engage in pervasive filtering in one or more areas, and 34 were found to engage in some level of filtering in one or more areas.
However, Internet censorship and surveillance was severe under the rule of Hosni Mubarak, culminating in a total shutdown of the Internet in Egypt during the 2011 Revolution.

Censorship by country

The ratings produced by several of these organizations are summarized in the Internet censorship by country and the Censorship by country articles.
Censorship by country collects information on censorship, Internet censorship, Freedom of the Press, Freedom of speech, and Human Rights by country and presents it in a sortable table, together with links to articles with more information.

Internet censorship in the United Kingdom

remove unlawful terrorist material content from the Internetblocked by major ISPs in the United Kingdomdefault filtering of Internet pornography
Of the 41 separate countries classified, seven were found to show no evidence of filtering in all three areas (Egypt, France, Germany, India, Ukraine, United Kingdom, and United States), while one was found to engage in pervasive filtering in all three areas (China), 13 were found to engage in pervasive filtering in one or more areas, and 34 were found to engage in some level of filtering in one or more areas.

Internet censorship in Pakistan

Pakistansupported a crackdownblocked
Of the 10 countries classified in both 2007 and 2009, one reduced its level of filtering (Pakistan), five increased their level of filtering (Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, South Korea, and Uzbekistan), and four maintained the same level of filtering (China, Iran, Myanmar, and Tajikistan).
In general, Internet filtering in Pakistan remains both inconsistent and intermittent, with filtering primarily targeted at content deemed to be a threat to national security and at religious content considered blasphemous.

Internet in Azerbaijan

Azerbaijaninformation technologies
Of the 10 countries classified in both 2007 and 2009, one reduced its level of filtering (Pakistan), five increased their level of filtering (Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, South Korea, and Uzbekistan), and four maintained the same level of filtering (China, Iran, Myanmar, and Tajikistan).
The Internet in Azerbaijan remains largely free from systematic government filtering or blocking of the Internet, but the government maintains a heavy-handed approach to political opposition in online forums.