Internet of things

IoTInternet of Things (IoT)Internet-of-ThingsIoT devicesthingsIndustrial Internetinternet-connectedinternet-connected deviceInternet-connected devicessmart-home appliances
The Internet of things (IoT) is the network of devices such as vehicles, and home appliances that contain electronics, software, actuators, and connectivity which allows these things to connect, interact and exchange data.wikipedia
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Home automation

smart homedigital homedomotics
Traditional fields of embedded systems, wireless sensor networks, control systems, automation (including home and building automation), and others all contribute to enabling the Internet of things. A growing portion of IoT devices are created for consumer use, including connected vehicles, home automation, wearable technology (as part of Internet of Wearable Things (IoWT) ), connected health, and appliances with remote monitoring capabilities.
When connected with the Internet, home devices are an important constituent of the Internet of Things.

Wearable technology

wearablewearable devicewearable devices
A growing portion of IoT devices are created for consumer use, including connected vehicles, home automation, wearable technology (as part of Internet of Wearable Things (IoWT) ), connected health, and appliances with remote monitoring capabilities.
Wearable devices such as activity trackers are an example of the Internet of Things, since "things" such as electronics, software, sensors, and connectivity are effectors that enable objects to exchange data (including data quality ) through the internet with a manufacturer, operator, and/or other connected devices, without requiring human intervention.

Auto-ID Labs

Auto-ID CenterAuto-ID CentreAuto-ID Lab
The term "Internet of things" was likely coined by Kevin Ashton of Procter & Gamble, later MIT's Auto-ID Center, in 1999, though he prefers the phrase "Internet for things".
These institutions were chosen by the former Auto-ID Center to design the architecture for the Internet of Things together with EPCglobal.

Cisco Systems

CiscoCisco Systems, Inc.Cisco Networking Academy
Defining the Internet of things as "simply the point in time when more 'things or objects' were connected to the Internet than people", Cisco Systems estimated that the IoT was "born" between 2008 and 2009, with the things/people ratio growing from 0.08 in 2003 to 1.84 in 2010.
Through its numerous acquired subsidiaries, such as OpenDNS, WebEx, Jabber and Jasper, Cisco specializes into specific tech markets, such as Internet of Things (IoT), domain security and energy management.

SmartThings

SmartThings HubSamsung SmartThings
There are also dedicated smart home hubs that are offered as standalone platforms to connect different smart home products and these include the Amazon Echo, Google Home, Apple's HomePod, and Samsung's SmartThings Hub.
SmartThings is building an open platform for smart homes and the consumer Internet of Things.

Kevin Ashton

The term "Internet of things" was likely coined by Kevin Ashton of Procter & Gamble, later MIT's Auto-ID Center, in 1999, though he prefers the phrase "Internet for things".
He is known for coining the term "the Internet of Things" to describe a system where the Internet is connected to the physical world via ubiquitous sensors.

HomeKit

HomeApple HomeKit
For instance, using Apple's HomeKit, manufacturers can get their home products and accessories be controlled by an application in iOS devices such as the iPhone and the Apple Watch.
HomeKit is a software framework by Apple that lets users set up their iOS Device to configure, communicate with, and control smart-home appliances.

Industrial big data

Industrial big data analytics will play a vital role in manufacturing asset predictive maintenance, although that is not the only capability of industrial big data.
Industrial big data refers to a large amount of diversified time series generated at a high speed by industrial equipment, known as the Internet of things The term emerged in 2012 along with the concept of "Industry 4.0”, and refers to big data”, popular in information technology marketing, in that data created by industrial equipment might hold more potential business values. Industrial big data takes advantage of industrial Internet technology. It uses raw data to support management decision making, so to reduce costs in maintenance and improve customer service. Please see intelligent maintenance system for more reference.

Smart city

smart citiesdigital cityintelligent cities
For example, Songdo, South Korea, the first of its kind fully equipped and wired smart city, is gradually being built, with approximately 70 percent of the business district completed.
The smart city concept integrates information and communication technology (ICT), and various physical devices connected to the network (the Internet of things or IoT) to optimize the efficiency of city operations and services and connect to citizens.

Industry 4.0

Industrie 4.0Smart FactoryGerman Industry 4.0
IIoT in manufacturing could generate so much business value that it will eventually lead to the Fourth Industrial Revolution, so the so-called Industry 4.0.
It includes cyber-physical systems, the Internet of things, cloud computing and cognitive computing.

Cyber-physical system

cyber physical systemsCyber-physical systemscyber-physical
Cyber-physical systems (CPS) is the core technology of industrial big data and it will be an interface between human and the cyber world.
CPS is also similar to the Internet of Things (IoT), sharing the same basic architecture; nevertheless, CPS presents a higher combination and coordination between physical and computational elements.

Web of Things

Web of Things (WoT)
Building on the Internet of things, the web of things is an architecture for the application layer of the Internet of things looking at the convergence of data from IoT devices into Web applications to create innovative use-cases.
Similarly to what the Web (Application Layer) is to the Internet (Network Layer), the Web of Things provides an Application Layer that simplifies the creation of Internet of Things applications.

Toyota Tsusho

Toyota Tsusho Corporation
In August 2018, Toyota Tsusho began a partnership with Microsoft to create fish farming tools using the Microsoft Azure application suite for IoT technologies related to water management.
In August 2018, Toyota Tsusho began a partnership with Microsoft to create fish farming tools using the Microsoft Azure application suite for IoT technologies related to water management.

Ambient intelligence

Ambient intelligence and autonomous control are not part of the original concept of the Internet of things.
In an ambient intelligence world, devices work in concert to support people in carrying out their everyday life activities, tasks and rituals in an easy, natural way using information and intelligence that is hidden in the network connecting these devices (for example: The Internet of Things).

Fourth Industrial Revolution

4IR
IIoT in manufacturing could generate so much business value that it will eventually lead to the Fourth Industrial Revolution, so the so-called Industry 4.0.
It is marked by emerging technology breakthroughs in a number of fields, including robotics, artificial intelligence, nanotechnology, quantum computing, biotechnology, the Internet of Things, the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), decentralized consensus, fifth-generation wireless technologies (5G), additive manufacturing/3D printing and fully autonomous vehicles.

Wireless sensor network

sensor networkwireless sensor networkssensor networks
Traditional fields of embedded systems, wireless sensor networks, control systems, automation (including home and building automation), and others all contribute to enabling the Internet of things.
With the emergence of Internet of Things, many other proposals have been made to provide sensor connectivity.

Microsoft

Microsoft CorporationMSMicrosoft Corp.
In August 2018, Toyota Tsusho began a partnership with Microsoft to create fish farming tools using the Microsoft Azure application suite for IoT technologies related to water management. Between 1993 and 1997, several companies proposed solutions like Microsoft's at Work or Novell's NEST.
In August 2018, Toyota Tsusho began a partnership with Microsoft to create fish farming tools using the Microsoft Azure application suite for IoT technologies related to water management.

6LoWPAN

IETF 6LoWPAN
IETF 6LoWPAN would be used to connect devices to IP networks.
The 6LoWPAN concept originated from the idea that "the Internet Protocol could and should be applied even to the smallest devices," and that low-power devices with limited processing capabilities should be able to participate in the Internet of Things.

BPM Everywhere

In order to program and control the flow of information in the Internet of things, a predicted architectural direction is being called BPM Everywhere which is a blending of traditional process management with process mining and special capabilities to automate the control of large numbers of coordinated devices.
BPM Everywhere (BPME) represents a strategy for coping, and possibly exploiting, the disruption that is anticipated as a result of structural changes due to technical progression known as the Internet of Things (IoT).

Kindai University

Kinki UniversityKindai
Developed in part by researchers from Kindai University, the water pump mechanisms use artificial intelligence to count the number of fish on a conveyor belt, analyze the number of fish, and deduce the effectiveness of water flow from the data the fish provide.
In August 2018, Toyota Tsusho began a partnership with Microsoft to create fish farming tools using the Microsoft Azure application suite for IoT technologies related to water management.

Device-to-device

D2DDevice to Device (D2D)
The field gained momentum when Bill Joy envisioned Device to Device (D2D) communication as a part of his "Six Webs" framework, presented at the World Economic Forum at Davos in 1999.
3) IoT Enhancement: By combining D2D with Internet of things (IoT), a truly interconnected wireless network will be created. Example of D2D-based IoT enhancement is vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication in the Internet of Vehicles (IoV). When running at high speeds, a vehicle can warn nearby vehicles in D2D mode before it changes lanes or slows down.

LPWAN

LoRaLow Power Wide Area (LPWA)Low Power Wide Area Network
Low-power wide-area networking (LPWAN) – Wireless networks designed to allow long-range communication at a low data rate, reducing power and cost for transmission. Available LPWAN technologies and protocols: LoRaWan, Sigfox, NB-IoT, Weightless.
A low-power wide-area network (LPWAN) or low-power wide-area (LPWA) network or low-power network (LPN) is a type of wireless telecommunication wide area network designed to allow long range communications at a low bit rate among things (connected objects), such as sensors operated on a battery.

Fog computing

fog
Fog computing is a viable alternative to prevent such large burst of data flow through Internet.
Fog networking supports the Internet of Things (IoT) concept, in which most of the devices used by humans on a daily basis will be connected to each other.

Constrained Application Protocol

CoAPConstrained Application Protocol (CoAP)IETF's Constrained Application Protocol
IETF's Constrained Application Protocol, ZeroMQ, and MQTT would provide lightweight data transport.
Multicast, low overhead, and simplicity are extremely important for Internet of Things (IoT) and Machine-to-Machine (M2M) devices, which tend to be deeply embedded and have much less memory and power supply than traditional internet devices have.

Bluetooth Low Energy

BLELELow Energy
Bluetooth mesh networking – Specification providing a mesh networking variant to Bluetooth low energy (BLE) with increased number of nodes and standardized application layer (Models).
On the technical side, Bluetooth 5 will quadruple the range by using increased transmit power or coded physical layer, double the speed by using optional half of the symbol time compared to Bluetooth 4.x, and provide an eight-fold increase in data broadcasting capacity by increasing the advertising data length of low energy Bluetooth transmissions compared to Bluetooth 4.x, which could be important for IoT applications where nodes are connected throughout a whole house.