Internet protocol suite

TCP/IPInternet protocolsIPInternet protocolInternetTCP/IP stackinternet technologiesTCPinternet technologyIP networks
The Internet protocol suite is the conceptual model and set of communications protocols used in the Internet and similar computer networks.wikipedia
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Internet

onlinethe Internetweb
The Internet protocol suite is the conceptual model and set of communications protocols used in the Internet and similar computer networks.
The Internet (contraction of interconnected network) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.

Transmission Control Protocol

TCPTCP/IPACK
It is commonly known as TCP/IP because the foundational protocols in the suite are the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP).
The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the main protocols of the Internet protocol suite.

Internet Protocol

IPInternet Protocol (IP)IP-based
It is commonly known as TCP/IP because the foundational protocols in the suite are the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP).
The Internet Protocol (IP) is the principal communications protocol in the Internet protocol suite for relaying datagrams across network boundaries.

Internet layer

InternetInternet/NetworkIP layer
From lowest to highest, the layers are the link layer, containing communication methods for data that remains within a single network segment (link); the internet layer, providing internetworking between independent networks; the transport layer, handling host-to-host communication; and the application layer, providing process-to-process data exchange for applications.
The internet layer is a group of internetworking methods, protocols, and specifications in the Internet protocol suite that are used to transport network packets from the originating host across network boundaries, if necessary, to the destination host specified by an IP address.

Transport layer

transporttransport protocollayer 4
From lowest to highest, the layers are the link layer, containing communication methods for data that remains within a single network segment (link); the internet layer, providing internetworking between independent networks; the transport layer, handling host-to-host communication; and the application layer, providing process-to-process data exchange for applications.
In computer networking, the transport layer is a conceptual division of methods in the layered architecture of protocols in the network stack in the Internet Protocol Suite and the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model.

ARPANET

ARPA networkARPAnet Working GroupArpanet/Darpanet
After initiating the pioneering ARPANET in 1969, DARPA started work on a number of other data transmission technologies.
The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) was an early packet-switching network and the first network to implement the protocol suite TCP/IP.

Link layer

link protocolLinknetwork interface layer
From lowest to highest, the layers are the link layer, containing communication methods for data that remains within a single network segment (link); the internet layer, providing internetworking between independent networks; the transport layer, handling host-to-host communication; and the application layer, providing process-to-process data exchange for applications.
In computer networking, the link layer is the lowest layer in the Internet Protocol Suite, the networking architecture of the Internet.

Application layer

Applicationapplication protocolapplication-layer
From lowest to highest, the layers are the link layer, containing communication methods for data that remains within a single network segment (link); the internet layer, providing internetworking between independent networks; the transport layer, handling host-to-host communication; and the application layer, providing process-to-process data exchange for applications. The application layer is the scope within which applications create user data and communicate this data to other applications on another or the same host. The applications, or processes, make use of the services provided by the underlying, lower layers, especially the Transport Layer which provides reliable or unreliable pipes to other processes. The communications partners are characterized by the application architecture, such as the client-server model and peer-to-peer networking. This is the layer in which all higher level protocols, such as SMTP, FTP, SSH, HTTP, operate. Processes are addressed via ports which essentially represent services.
The application layer abstraction is used in both of the standard models of computer networking: the Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) and the OSI model.

Computer network

networknetworkingcomputer networking
The Internet protocol suite is the conceptual model and set of communications protocols used in the Internet and similar computer networks.
In 1972, commercial services using X.25 were deployed, and later used as an underlying infrastructure for expanding TCP/IP networks.

Vint Cerf

Vinton Cerf Cerf, VintDr. Vinton G. Cerf
In the spring of 1973, Vinton Cerf, the developer of the existing ARPANET Network Control Program (NCP) protocol, joined Kahn to work on open-architecture interconnection models with the goal of designing the next protocol generation for the ARPANET.
In the early days, Cerf was a manager for the United States' Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) funding various groups to develop TCP/IP technology.

Louis Pouzin

Cerf credits Hubert Zimmermann and Louis Pouzin, designer of the CYCLADES network, with important influences on this design.
His work influenced Robert Kahn, Vinton Cerf, and others in the development of TCP/IP protocols used by the Internet.

PARC Universal Packet

PUPXerox PUP
A significant technical influence was the early networking work at Xerox PARC, which produced the PARC Universal Packet protocol suite, much of which existed around that time.
The origins of the PUP suite lie in two developments; in the same events in the early 1970s as the very earliest stage of the development of TCP/IP (see History of the Internet), and the creation of the Ethernet local area network at PARC.

Communication protocol

protocolprotocolscommunications protocol
The Internet protocol suite is the conceptual model and set of communications protocols used in the Internet and similar computer networks.
The best known frameworks are the TCP/IP model and the OSI model.

FTP Software

PC-TCP
At the same time, several smaller companies, such as FTP Software and the Wollongong Group, began offering TCP/IP stacks for DOS and Microsoft Windows.
Their main product was PC/TCP, a full-featured, standards-compliant TCP/IP package for DOS.

OS/2

1.11.2a proprietary operating system
They navigated the corporate politics to get a stream of TCP/IP products for various IBM systems, including MVS, VM, and OS/2.
The Extended Edition of 1.2 introduced TCP/IP and Ethernet support.

Xerox Network Systems

XNSXNS protocolInternet Datagram Protocol
Microsoft released a native TCP/IP stack in Windows 95. This event helped cement TCP/IP's dominance over other protocols on Microsoft-based networks, which included IBM Systems Network Architecture (SNA), and on other platforms such as Digital Equipment Corporation's DECnet, Open Systems Interconnection (OSI), and Xerox Network Systems (XNS).
It had little impact on TCP/IP, however, which was designed earlier.

The Wollongong Group

At the same time, several smaller companies, such as FTP Software and the Wollongong Group, began offering TCP/IP stacks for DOS and Microsoft Windows.
It later achieved name recognition as a pioneer in developing and selling commercial versions of the TCP/IP protocols.

Barry Appelman

In IBM, from 1984, Barry Appelman's group did TCP/IP development.
Barry Appelman led IBM's foray into TCP/IP at the Thomas Watson Research Center from 1984 until 1993.

Jon Postel

Jonathan B. Postelafter the DNS root authority incidentJ. B. Postel
Advocates included Jonathan Postel of the University of Southern California's Information Sciences Institute, who edited the Request for Comments (RFCs), the technical and strategic document series that has both documented and catalyzed Internet development.
Postel was the RFC Editor from 1969 until his death, and wrote and edited many important RFCs, including RFC 791, RFC 792 and RFC 793, which define the basic protocols of the Internet protocol suite, and RFC 2223, Instructions to RFC Authors.

Protocol stack

network stackprotocol suitenetwork protocol stack
The Internet protocol suite and the layered protocol stack design were in use before the OSI model was established.
For example, this interface level would define how TCP/IP transport software would talk to the network interface controller.

Peer-to-peer

P2Ppeer to peerpeer-to-peer network
The application layer is the scope within which applications create user data and communicate this data to other applications on another or the same host. The applications, or processes, make use of the services provided by the underlying, lower layers, especially the Transport Layer which provides reliable or unreliable pipes to other processes. The communications partners are characterized by the application architecture, such as the client-server model and peer-to-peer networking. This is the layer in which all higher level protocols, such as SMTP, FTP, SSH, HTTP, operate. Processes are addressed via ports which essentially represent services.
Data is still exchanged directly over the underlying TCP/IP network, but at the application layer peers are able to communicate with each other directly, via the logical overlay links (each of which corresponds to a path through the underlying physical network).

Internet Control Message Protocol

ICMP11 - Time Exceededcontrol packet
These protocols are each identified by a unique protocol number: for example, Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) and Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) are protocols 1 and 2, respectively.
The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is a supporting protocol in the Internet protocol suite.

Data link layer

layer 2Data linkdatalink layer
These perform data link functions such as adding a packet header to prepare it for transmission, then actually transmit the frame over a physical medium.
In the Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP), the data link layer functionality is contained within the link layer, the lowest layer of the descriptive model.

Network packet

packetpacketsdata packet
It forwards network packets back and forth between them.
Many networks do not provide guarantees of delivery, non-duplication of packets, or in-order delivery of packets, e.g., the UDP protocol of the Internet.

Physical layer

physicalPHYlayer 1
These perform data link functions such as adding a packet header to prepare it for transmission, then actually transmit the frame over a physical medium.
The Internet protocol suite, as defined in RFC 1122 and RFC 1123, is a high-level networking description used for the Internet and similar networks.