Intersex

ambiguous genitaliaintersexualityintersex conditionambiguoushermaphroditeintersexualintersexedsex differentiation disordersundermasculinizationFemale pseudohermaphroditism
Intersex people are individuals born with any of several variations in sex characteristics including chromosomes, gonads, sex hormones, or genitals that, according to the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, "do not fit the typical definitions for male or female bodies".wikipedia
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Intersex human rights

human rightsIntersex rights by countryintersex
Increasingly these issues are considered human rights abuses, with statements from international and national human rights and ethics institutions.
Intersex people are born with sex characteristics, such as chromosomes, gonads, or genitals, that, according to the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, "do not fit typical binary notions of male or female bodies."

Disorders of sex development

Disorders of sexual developmentdisorderdifference in sex development
In clinical settings, the term “disorders of sex development” (DSD) has been used since 2006.
The World Health Organization and many medical journals still reference DSDs as intersex traits or conditions.

Intersex rights in Malta

MaltaMaltesetransgender and intersex
In April 2015, Malta became the first country to outlaw non-consensual medical interventions to modify sex anatomy, including that of intersex people.
Intersex children in Malta have world-first protections from non-consensual cosmetic medical interventions, following the passing into law of the Gender Identity, Gender Expression and Sex Characteristics Act in 2015.

Hermaphrodite

hermaphroditichermaphroditismhermaphrodites
Intersex people were previously referred to as hermaphrodites or "congenital eunuchs".
Historically, the term hermaphrodite has also been used to describe ambiguous genitalia and gonadal mosaicism in individuals of gonochoristic species, especially human beings.

Christiane Völling

In 2011, Christiane Völling became the first intersex person known to have successfully sued for damages in a case brought for non-consensual surgical intervention. Standing to file in law and compensation claims was an issue in the 2011 case of Christiane Völling in Germany.
Christiane Völling (17 April 1959) is the first intersex person known to have successfully sued for damages in a case brought for non-consensual surgical intervention described as a non-consensual sex reassignment.

Hijra (South Asia)

hijrahijrasaravani
Some of these cultures, for instance the South-Asian Hijra communities, may include intersex people in a third gender category.
In the Indian subcontinent, Hijra are eunuchs, intersex people, and transgender people.

True hermaphroditism

true hermaphroditehermaphroditism, truetrue hermaphrodites
Intersex people were categorized as either having true hermaphroditism, female pseudohermaphroditism, or male pseudohermaphroditism.
True hermaphroditism, clinically known as ovotesticular disorder of sex development, is a medical term for an intersex condition in which an individual is born with ovarian and testicular tissue.

Third gender

third sexthird-genderwaria
Some of these cultures, for instance the South-Asian Hijra communities, may include intersex people in a third gender category.
Biology determines whether a human's chromosomal and anatomical sex is male, female, or one of the uncommon variations on this sexual dimorphism that can create a degree of ambiguity known as intersex.

Sex

biological sexsexesanatomical sex
Intersex people are individuals born with any of several variations in sex characteristics including chromosomes, gonads, sex hormones, or genitals that, according to the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, "do not fit the typical definitions for male or female bodies".
Humans may also be intersex.

Gender identity

gender identitiesgendergender spectrum
Some intersex persons may be assigned and raised as a girl or boy but then identify with another gender later in life, while most continue to identify with their assigned sex.
A survey of the research literature from 1955–2000 suggests that more than one in every hundred individuals may have some intersex characteristic.

Sex assignment

assigned male at birthassigned female at birthassigned sex
Some intersex persons may be assigned and raised as a girl or boy but then identify with another gender later in life, while most continue to identify with their assigned sex.
These conditions are collectively called intersex, and may complicate sex assignment.

Sex and gender distinction

sex or gendersex and genderdistinct
Some non-European societies have sex or gender systems that recognize more than two categories that just male/man and female/woman.
In other cases, an individual may have biological sex characteristics that complicate sex assignment, and the person may be intersex.

Intersex rights in Australia

AustralianAustraliaintersex
Several countries have so far explicitly protected intersex people from discrimination, with landmarks including South Africa, Australia, and, most comprehensively, Malta.
Intersex rights in Australia are protections and rights afforded to intersex people through statutes, regulations, and international human rights treaties, including through the Sex Discrimination Act 1984 (Cth) which makes it unlawful to discriminate against a person based upon that person's intersex status in contexts such as work, education, provision of services, and accommodation.

Intersex rights in the United States

United StatesM.C. v AaronsonM.C. v. Aaronson
In the United States, the Minor Child (M.C. v Aaronson lawsuit was "a medical malpractice case related to the informed consent for a surgery performed on the Crawford's adopted child (known as M.C.) at [Medical University of South Carolina] in April 2006".
Intersex people in the United States have some of the same rights as other people, but with significant gaps, particularly in protection from non-consensual cosmetic medical interventions and violence, and protection from discrimination.

Intersex rights in Kenya

KenyaKenyan
Abandonments and infanticides have been reported in Uganda, Kenya, South Asia, and China.
Intersex people in Kenya face significant human rights violations, starting from birth.

Intersex rights in Germany

GermanyGermanpraised Germany
Standing to file in law and compensation claims was an issue in the 2011 case of Christiane Völling in Germany.
Intersex people in Germany have no recognition of their rights to physical integrity and bodily autonomy, and no specific protections from discrimination on the basis of sex characteristics.

Intersex rights in South Africa

South AfricaintersexSouth African
Several countries have so far explicitly protected intersex people from discrimination, with landmarks including South Africa, Australia, and, most comprehensively, Malta.
Intersex people in South Africa have some of the same rights as other people, but with significant gaps in protection from non-consensual cosmetic medical interventions and protection from discrimination.

Legal recognition of intersex people

legal recognitionintersex
The Asia Pacific Forum of National Human Rights Institutions states that legal recognition is firstly "about intersex people who have been issued a male or a female birth certificate being able to enjoy the same legal rights as other men and women."
Intersex people are born with sex characteristics, such as chromosomes, gonads, or genitals that, according to the United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, "do not fit typical binary notions of male or female bodies".

Intersex rights in Chile

Chile
A second case was adjudicated in Chile in 2012, involving a child and his parents.
Between December 2015 and August 2016, the Chilean Ministry of Health issued a regulatory suspension of non-necessary cosmetic medical interventions on intersex children.

Intersex civil society organizations

intersex civil society organizationorganisationsintersex organizations
Some intersex organizations reference "intersex people" and "intersex variations or traits" while others use more medicalized language such as "people with intersex conditions", or people "with intersex conditions or DSDs (differences of sex development)" and "children born with variations of sex anatomy".
Intersex civil society organizations have existed since at least the mid-1980s.

Intersex rights in China

China
Abandonments and infanticides have been reported in Uganda, Kenya, South Asia, and China.
Intersex rights in China including the People's Republic of China, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, etc., are protections and rights afforded to intersex people through legislation and regulation.

Intersex rights in Uganda

UgandaUgandan
Abandonments and infanticides have been reported in Uganda, Kenya, South Asia, and China.
Intersex people in Uganda face a dangerous environment, with significant gaps in protection from mutilation and non-consensual cosmetic medical interventions and protection from discrimination.

Organisation Intersex International

Intersex South AfricaOII-FranceOrganization Intersex International
Organisation Intersex International (OII) questions a disease/disability approach, argues for deferral of intervention unless medically necessary, when fully informed consent of the individual involved is possible, and self-determination of sex/gender orientation and identity.
The Organisation Intersex International (OII) is a global advocacy and support group for people with intersex traits.

InterACT

Interact Advocates for Intersex YouthThe Interface ProjectAdvocates for Informed Choice
In May 2016, Interact Advocates for Intersex Youth published a statement recognizing "increasing general understanding and acceptance of the term "intersex"".
Advocates for Informed Choice, dba interACT or interACT Advocates for Intersex Youth, is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization using innovative strategies to advocate for the legal and human rights of children with intersex traits.

Intersex Human Rights Australia

Organisation Intersex International AustraliaOII Australia
Organisation Intersex International Australia states that some intersex individuals are same sex attracted, and some are heterosexual, but "LGBTI activism has fought for the rights of people who fall outside of expected binary sex and gender norms."
Intersex Human Rights Australia (IHRA) is a voluntary organisation for intersex people that promotes the human rights and bodily autonomy of intersex people in Australia, and provides education and information services.