Intertidal zone

intertidalforeshoretidal zoneintertidallyintertidal zonesmarine intertidaleulittoral zoneintertidal systemsvertical zonationforeshore fishery
The intertidal zone, also known as the foreshore or seashore, is the area that is above water level at low tide and underwater at high tide (in other words, the area within the tidal range).wikipedia
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Tide

tidalhigh tidelow tide
The intertidal zone, also known as the foreshore or seashore, is the area that is above water level at low tide and underwater at high tide (in other words, the area within the tidal range).
One easily visible feature is vertical zonation, in which the community divides into distinct horizontal bands of specific species at each elevation above low water.

Littoral zone

littoralsublittoralnearshore
Sometimes it is referred to as the littoral zone, although that can be defined as a wider region. A typical rocky shore can be divided into a spray zone or splash zone (also known as the supratidal zone), which is above the spring high-tide line and is covered by water only during storms, and an intertidal zone, which lies between the high and low tidal extremes.
The littoral zone always includes this intertidal zone, and the terms are often used interchangeably.

Annelid

Annelidaannelidsannelid worms
The intertidal zone is also home to several species from different phyla (Porifera, Annelida, Coelenterata, Mollusca, Arthropoda, etc.).
The species exist in and have adapted to various ecologies – some in marine environments as distinct as tidal zones and hydrothermal vents, others in fresh water, and yet others in moist terrestrial environments.

Mudflat

tidal flatmudflatstidal flats
The well-known area also includes steep rocky cliffs, sandy beaches, or wetlands (e.g., vast mudflats).
Most of the sediment within a mudflat is within the intertidal zone, and thus the flat is submerged and exposed approximately twice daily.

Marine habitats

marinemarine habitatseabed topography
This area can include several types of habitats with various species of life, such as seastars, sea urchins, and many species of coral.
Intertidal zones, those areas close to shore, are constantly being exposed and covered by the ocean's tides.

Mangrove

mangrovesmangrove forestmangrove swamps
Some microclimates in the littoral zone are moderated by local features and larger plants such as mangroves.
The intertidal existence to which these trees are adapted represents the major limitation to the number of species able to thrive in their habitat.

Rocky shore

rocky shoresrocky beachesrocky coasts
A typical rocky shore can be divided into a spray zone or splash zone (also known as the supratidal zone), which is above the spring high-tide line and is covered by water only during storms, and an intertidal zone, which lies between the high and low tidal extremes. On rocky shores, tide pools form in depressions that fill with water as the tide rises.
A rocky shore is an intertidal area of seacoasts where solid rock predominates.

Underwater environment

underwatersubmergedundersea
The intertidal zone, also known as the foreshore or seashore, is the area that is above water level at low tide and underwater at high tide (in other words, the area within the tidal range).
Marine ecosystems include nearshore systems, such as the salt marshes, mudflats, seagrass meadows, mangroves, rocky intertidal systems and coral reefs.

Tide pool

tide poolstidal pooltidepool
On rocky shores, tide pools form in depressions that fill with water as the tide rises.
Tide pools or rock pools are shallow pools of seawater that form on the rocky intertidal shore.

Marine life

marinemarine animalsea life
This area can include several types of habitats with various species of life, such as seastars, sea urchins, and many species of coral.
Echinoderms are found at every ocean depth, from the intertidal zone to the abyssal zone.

Habitat

habitatsmicrohabitatnatural habitat
The intertidal zone is one of a number of marine biomes or habitats, including estuary, neritic, surface, and deep zones.
Fresh water habitats include marshes, streams, rivers, lakes, and ponds, and marine habitats include salt marshes, the coast, the intertidal zone, estuaries, reefs, bays, the open sea, the sea bed, deep water and submarine vents.

Sea

maritimemarineat sea
Adaptation in the littoral zone allows the use of nutrients supplied in high volume on a regular basis from the sea, which is actively moved to the zone by tides.
As the water recedes, it uncovers more and more of the foreshore, also known as the intertidal zone.

Chiton

Polyplacophorapolyplacophoranchitons
Some of the organisms in this area are abalone, sea anemones, brown seaweed, chitons, crabs, green algae, hydroids, isopods, limpets, mussels, nudibranchs, sculpin, sea cucumber, sea lettuce, sea palms, starfish, sea urchins, shrimp, snails, sponges, surf grass, tube worms, and whelks.
Some species live quite high in the intertidal zone and are exposed to the air and light for long periods.

Shore

shorelineinshorewaterfront
Along most shores, the intertidal zone can be clearly separated into the following subzones: high tide zone, middle tide zone, and low tide zone.
In physical oceanography, a shore is the wider fringe that is geologically modified by the action of the body of water past and present, while the beach is at the edge of the shore, representing the intertidal zone where there is one.

Neritic zone

subtidalsublittoral zoneneritic
The intertidal zone is one of a number of marine biomes or habitats, including estuary, neritic, surface, and deep zones.
Above the neritic zone lie the intertidal (or eulittoral) and supralittoral zones; below it the continental slope begins, descending from the continental shelf to the abyssal plain and the pelagic zone.

Starfish

Asteroideasea starsea stars
This area can include several types of habitats with various species of life, such as seastars, sea urchins, and many species of coral. Some of the organisms in this area are abalone, sea anemones, brown seaweed, chitons, crabs, green algae, hydroids, isopods, limpets, mussels, nudibranchs, sculpin, sea cucumber, sea lettuce, sea palms, starfish, sea urchins, shrimp, snails, sponges, surf grass, tube worms, and whelks. Typical inhabitants of the intertidal rocky shore include urchins, sea anemones, barnacles, chitons, crabs, isopods, mussels, starfish, and many marine gastropod molluscs such as limpets and whelks.
They are found from the intertidal zone down to abyssal depths, 6000 m below the surface.

Limpet

limpetsFlitherflitters
Some of the organisms in this area are abalone, sea anemones, brown seaweed, chitons, crabs, green algae, hydroids, isopods, limpets, mussels, nudibranchs, sculpin, sea cucumber, sea lettuce, sea palms, starfish, sea urchins, shrimp, snails, sponges, surf grass, tube worms, and whelks.
True limpets in the family Patellidae live on hard surfaces in the intertidal zone.

Nudibranch

Nudibranchiasea slugnudibranchs
Some of the organisms in this area are abalone, sea anemones, brown seaweed, chitons, crabs, green algae, hydroids, isopods, limpets, mussels, nudibranchs, sculpin, sea cucumber, sea lettuce, sea palms, starfish, sea urchins, shrimp, snails, sponges, surf grass, tube worms, and whelks.
Nudibranchs live at virtually all depths, from the intertidal zone to depths well over 700 m. The greatest diversity of nudibranchs is seen in warm, shallow reefs, although a new nudibranch species was discovered at a depth near 2500 m.

Abalone

ormerabalone shellBao yu
Some of the organisms in this area are abalone, sea anemones, brown seaweed, chitons, crabs, green algae, hydroids, isopods, limpets, mussels, nudibranchs, sculpin, sea cucumber, sea lettuce, sea palms, starfish, sea urchins, shrimp, snails, sponges, surf grass, tube worms, and whelks.
These snails cling solidly with their broad, muscular foot to rocky surfaces at sublittoral depths, although some species such as Haliotis cracherodii used to be common in the intertidal zone.

New Zealand foreshore and seabed controversy

foreshore and seabed controversyforeshore and seabedforeshore and seabed legislation
One recent example is the New Zealand foreshore and seabed controversy.
It concerns the ownership of the country's foreshore and seabed, with many Māori groups claiming that Māori have a rightful claim to title.

Gastropoda

gastropodgastropodsgastropod molluscs
Typical inhabitants of the intertidal rocky shore include urchins, sea anemones, barnacles, chitons, crabs, isopods, mussels, starfish, and many marine gastropod molluscs such as limpets and whelks.
Representatives live in gardens, woodland, deserts, and on mountains; in small ditches, great rivers and lakes; in estuaries, mudflats, the rocky intertidal, the sandy subtidal, in the abyssal depths of the oceans including the hydrothermal vents, and numerous other ecological niches, including parasitic ones.

Biome

biotabiomesmajor habitat type
The intertidal zone is one of a number of marine biomes or habitats, including estuary, neritic, surface, and deep zones.

Barnacle

barnaclesCirripediacyprid
Typical inhabitants of the intertidal rocky shore include urchins, sea anemones, barnacles, chitons, crabs, isopods, mussels, starfish, and many marine gastropod molluscs such as limpets and whelks.
Although they have been found at water depths to 600 m, most barnacles inhabit shallow waters, with 75% of species living in water depths less than 100 m, and 25% inhabiting the intertidal zone.

Postelsia

sea palmPostelsia palmaeformissea palms
Some of the organisms in this area are abalone, sea anemones, brown seaweed, chitons, crabs, green algae, hydroids, isopods, limpets, mussels, nudibranchs, sculpin, sea cucumber, sea lettuce, sea palms, starfish, sea urchins, shrimp, snails, sponges, surf grass, tube worms, and whelks.
They live in the middle to upper intertidal zones in very wavy areas.

Mussel

musselshorse musselblue mussels
Some of the organisms in this area are abalone, sea anemones, brown seaweed, chitons, crabs, green algae, hydroids, isopods, limpets, mussels, nudibranchs, sculpin, sea cucumber, sea lettuce, sea palms, starfish, sea urchins, shrimp, snails, sponges, surf grass, tube worms, and whelks.