Intervertebral foramen

intervertebral foraminaneural foramenneural foraminaforaminaspecific openings
The intervertebral foramen (also called neural foramen, and often abbreviated as IV foramen or IVF), is a foramen between two spinal vertebrae.wikipedia
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Thoracic vertebrae

dorsal vertebraethoracic vertebrathoracic
Cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae all have intervertebral foramina.
The intervertebral foramen is small, and circular, with two at each intervertebral level, one for the right and one for the left exiting nerve roots.

Spinal nerve

spinal nervescervical nervessacral nerves
These are the root of each spinal nerve, the spinal artery of the segmental artery, communicating veins between the internal and external plexuses, recurrent meningeal (sinu-vertebral) nerves, and transforaminal ligaments.
The spinal nerve emerges from the spinal column through an opening (intervertebral foramen) between adjacent vertebrae.

Vertebra

vertebraeneural spineneural arch
The intervertebral foramen (also called neural foramen, and often abbreviated as IV foramen or IVF), is a foramen between two spinal vertebrae. When the spinal vertebrae are articulated with each other, the bodies form a strong pillar that supports the head and trunk, and the vertebral foramen constitutes a canal for the protection of the medulla spinalis (spinal cord).
There are vertebral notches formed from the shape of the pedicles, which form the intervertebral foramina when the vertebrae articulate.

Meningeal branches of spinal nerve

meningeal branches (recurrent meningeal or sinuvertebral nerves)recurrent meningeal (sinu-vertebral) nervesrecurrent meningeal nerves.
These are the root of each spinal nerve, the spinal artery of the segmental artery, communicating veins between the internal and external plexuses, recurrent meningeal (sinu-vertebral) nerves, and transforaminal ligaments.
They then re-enter the intervertebral foramen, and innervate the facet joints, the anulus fibrosus of the intervertebral disc, and the ligaments and periosteum of the spinal canal, carrying pain sensation.

Spinal cord

medulla spinalisspinethoracic segment
When the spinal vertebrae are articulated with each other, the bodies form a strong pillar that supports the head and trunk, and the vertebral foramen constitutes a canal for the protection of the medulla spinalis (spinal cord).
Spinal nerves, with the exception of C1 and C2, form inside the intervertebral foramen (IVF).

Cervical vertebrae

cervicalcervical spinecervical vertebra
Cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae all have intervertebral foramina.

Lumbar vertebrae

lumbar vertebralumbar spinelumbar
Cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae all have intervertebral foramina.

Communicating vein

Communicating veinsperforating veins
These are the root of each spinal nerve, the spinal artery of the segmental artery, communicating veins between the internal and external plexuses, recurrent meningeal (sinu-vertebral) nerves, and transforaminal ligaments.

Vertebral foramen

foraminaneural canal
When the spinal vertebrae are articulated with each other, the bodies form a strong pillar that supports the head and trunk, and the vertebral foramen constitutes a canal for the protection of the medulla spinalis (spinal cord).

Arthritis

arthriticjoint inflammationarthritic changes
Foramina can be occluded by arthritic degenerative changes and space-occupying lesions like tumors, metastases, and spinal disc herniations.

Neoplasm

tumortumorstumour
Foramina can be occluded by arthritic degenerative changes and space-occupying lesions like tumors, metastases, and spinal disc herniations.

Metastasis

metastaticmetastasesmetastasized
Foramina can be occluded by arthritic degenerative changes and space-occupying lesions like tumors, metastases, and spinal disc herniations.

Spinal disc herniation

herniated discherniated diskslipped disc
Foramina can be occluded by arthritic degenerative changes and space-occupying lesions like tumors, metastases, and spinal disc herniations.

Sacrum

Spinal stenosis

a narrow spinal canalcongenital cervical stenosisnarrower than average
Spinal stenosis is an abnormal narrowing of the spinal canal or neural foramen that results in pressure on the spinal cord or nerve roots.

Intervertebral veins

Intervertebral vein
The intervertebral veins accompany the spinal nerves through the intervertebral foramina; they receive the veins from the medulla spinalis, drain the internal and external vertebral plexuses.

Spondylosis

cervical spondylosislumbar spondylosisspinal spondylotic changes
The degenerative process in osteoarthritis chiefly affects the vertebral bodies, the neural foramina and the facet joints (facet syndrome).

Owl

Strigiformesowlsowl-like
They also have adaptations to their circulatory systems, permitting rotation without cutting off blood to the brain: the foramina in their vertebrae through which the vertebral arteries pass are about 10 times the diameter of the artery, instead of about the same size as the artery as in humans; the vertebral arteries enter the cervical vertebrae higher than in other birds, giving the vessels some slack, and the carotid arteries unite in a very large anastomosis or junction, the largest of any bird's, preventing blood supply from being cut off while they rotate their necks.

Lumbar spinal stenosis

lumbar stenosisLumbarspinal stenosis
Narrowing of spinal structures in the spinal cord such as the central canal, the lateral recesses, or the intervertebral foramen (the opening where a spinal nerve root passes) must be present, but are not sufficient to cause LSS alone.

Lumbar nerves

L5L4L2
They arise from the spinal cord between each pair of lumbar spinal vertebrae and travel through the intervertebral foramina.

Ventral ramus of spinal nerve

ventral ramianterior ramiventral ramus
Shortly after a spinal nerve exits the intervertebral foramen, it branches into the dorsal-ramus; the ventral-ramus; and the ramus-communicans.

Lumbar plexus

lumbarlumbosacral plexus
The plexus is formed lateral to the intervertebral foramina and passes through psoas major.

Vertebral column

spinespinal columnspinal
In between each pair of vertebrae are two small holes called intervertebral foramina.

Segmental medullary artery

Radicular (or segmental medullary) arterysegmental medullary arteriesanterior segmental medullary arteries
These small branches penetrate into the vertebral bone through small openings such as the intervertebral foramina.