Intonation (linguistics)

intonationintonationalintonationscadencepitchquestion intonationChinese intonationglobal fallGlobal riseinflection
In linguistics, intonation is variation in spoken pitch when used, not for distinguishing words as sememes (a concept known as tone), but, rather, for a range of other functions such as indicating the attitudes and emotions of the speaker, signalling the difference between statements and questions, and between different types of questions, focusing attention on important elements of the spoken message and also helping to regulate conversational interaction.wikipedia
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Prosody (linguistics)

prosodyprosodicsuprasegmental
Although intonation is primarily a matter of pitch variation, it is important to be aware that functions attributed to intonation such as the expression of attitudes and emotions, or highlighting aspects of grammatical structure, almost always involve concomitant variation in other prosodic features.
In linguistics, prosody is concerned with those elements of speech that are not individual phonetic segments (vowels and consonants) but are properties of syllables and larger units of speech, including linguistic functions such as intonation, tone, stress, and rhythm.

International Phonetic Alphabet

IPAPronunciationInternational Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)
However, for general purposes the International Phonetic Alphabet offers the two intonation marks shown in the box at the head of this article.
The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are part of oral language: phones, phonemes, intonation and the separation of words and syllables.

Tone (linguistics)

tonetonal languagetones
In linguistics, intonation is variation in spoken pitch when used, not for distinguishing words as sememes (a concept known as tone), but, rather, for a range of other functions such as indicating the attitudes and emotions of the speaker, signalling the difference between statements and questions, and between different types of questions, focusing attention on important elements of the spoken message and also helping to regulate conversational interaction.
All verbal languages use pitch to express emotional and other paralinguistic information and to convey emphasis, contrast, and other such features in what is called intonation, but not all languages use tones to distinguish words or their inflections, analogously to consonants and vowels.

High rising terminal

rising intonationuptalkAustralian Questioning Intonation
The high rising terminal (HRT), also known as upspeak, uptalk, rising inflection, upward inflection, or high rising intonation (HRI), is a feature of some variants of English where declarative sentence clauses end with a rising-pitch intonation, until the end of the sentence where a falling-pitch is applied.

Janet Pierrehumbert

Pierrehumbert, Janet
A more recent approach to the analysis of intonation grew out of the research of Janet Pierrehumbert and developed into the system most widely known by the name of ToBI (short for "Tones and Break Indices").
She developed an intonational model which includes a grammar of intonation patterns and an explicit algorithm for calculating pitch contours in speech, as well as an account of intonational meaning.

Yes–no question

yes-no questionyes/no questionpolar question
In some languages, such as in Modern Greek, Portuguese, and the Jakaltek language, the only way to distinguish a yes–no question from a simple declarative statement is the rising question intonation used when saying the question.

Spanish language

SpanishSpanish-languageCastilian
While many languages, such as English and Spanish, place stress on a particular syllable of each word, and while many speakers of languages such as English may accompany this stress with a rising intonation, French has neither stress nor distinctive intonation on a given syllable.
A 1949 study by Italian-American linguist Mario Pei, analyzing the degree of difference from a language's parent (Latin, in the case of Romance languages) by comparing phonology, inflection, syntax, vocabulary, and intonation, indicated the following percentages (the higher the percentage, the greater the distance from Latin): In the case of Spanish, it is one of the closest Romance languages to Latin (20% distance), only behind Sardinian (8% distance) and Italian (12% distance).

Dwight Bolinger

Bolinger, D.Bolinger, D. L.Bolinger, Dwight Le Merton
The American linguist Dwight Bolinger carried on a long campaign to argue that pitch contours were more important in the study of intonation than individual pitch levels.
His work touched on a wide range of subjects, including semantics, intonation, phonesthesia, and the politics of language.

Stress (linguistics)

stressstressedunstressed
While many languages, such as English and Spanish, place stress on a particular syllable of each word, and while many speakers of languages such as English may accompany this stress with a rising intonation, French has neither stress nor distinctive intonation on a given syllable.
That is one of the three components of prosody, along with rhythm and intonation.

Discourse analysis

discoursediscourse analystDiscourse Studies
An influential development in British studies of intonation has been Discourse Intonation, an offshoot of Discourse Analysis first put forward by David Brazil.

Tag question

Focus (linguistics)

focusfocusednarrow focus
Furthermore, the details of Mandarin intonation are affected by various factors like the tone of the final syllable, the presence or absence of focus (centering of attention) on the final word, and the dialect of the speaker.
Focus also relates to phonology and has ramifications for how and where suprasegmental information such as rhythm, stress, and intonation is encoded in the grammar, and in particular intonational tunes that mark focus.

Affect (linguistics)

affectaffectedspeaker affect
Affects such as sarcasm, contempt, dismissal, distaste, disgust, disbelief, exasperation, boredom, anger, joy, respect or disrespect, sympathy, pity, gratitude, wonder, admiration, humility, and awe are frequently conveyed through paralinguistic mechanisms such as intonation, facial expression, and gesture, and thus require recourse to punctuation or emoticons when reduced to writing, but there are grammatical and lexical expressions of affect as well, such as pejorative and approbative or laudative expressions or inflections, adversative forms, honorific and deferential language, interrogatives and tag questions, and some types of evidentiality.

Sentence (linguistics)

sentencesentencesdeclarative sentence
As with all language expressions, sentences might contain function and content words and contain properties such as characteristic intonation and timing patterns.

Amusia

tone deaftone-deaftone deafness
Those with congenital amusia show impaired ability to discriminate, identify and imitate the intonation of the final words in sentences.
Those with congenital amusia show impaired performance on discrimination, identification and imitation of sentences with intonational differences in pitch direction in their final word.

Prosodic unit

intonation unitintonational phraseintonational phrases
The abbreviation IU is used and therefore the full form is often found as intonation unit, despite the fact that technically it is a unit of prosody rather than intonation, which is only one element of prosody.

Boundary tone

Boundary tone (linguistics)
The term was first introduced in a PhD thesis on English intonation by Mark Liberman in 1975 but without being developed further.

Greenlandic language

GreenlandicKalaallisutWest Greenlandic
Falling intonation is said to be used at the end of questions in some languages, including Hawaiian, Fijian, and Samoan and in Greenlandic.
Intonation is influenced by syllable weight: heavy syllables are pronounced in a way that may be perceived as stress.

Hawaiian Pidgin

Hawaiian Creole EnglishHawaiian CreolePidgin
It is also used in Hawaiian Creole English, presumably derived from Hawaiian.

Linguistics

linguistlinguisticlinguists
In linguistics, intonation is variation in spoken pitch when used, not for distinguishing words as sememes (a concept known as tone), but, rather, for a range of other functions such as indicating the attitudes and emotions of the speaker, signalling the difference between statements and questions, and between different types of questions, focusing attention on important elements of the spoken message and also helping to regulate conversational interaction.

Pitch (music)

pitchpitchestone
In linguistics, intonation is variation in spoken pitch when used, not for distinguishing words as sememes (a concept known as tone), but, rather, for a range of other functions such as indicating the attitudes and emotions of the speaker, signalling the difference between statements and questions, and between different types of questions, focusing attention on important elements of the spoken message and also helping to regulate conversational interaction.

Sememe

sememes
In linguistics, intonation is variation in spoken pitch when used, not for distinguishing words as sememes (a concept known as tone), but, rather, for a range of other functions such as indicating the attitudes and emotions of the speaker, signalling the difference between statements and questions, and between different types of questions, focusing attention on important elements of the spoken message and also helping to regulate conversational interaction.

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