Intra-household bargaining

The ministers of foreign affairs of the United States, the United Kingdom, Russia, Germany, France, China, the European Union and Iran negotiating in Lausanne for a Comprehensive agreement on the Iranian nuclear programme (30 March 2015).

Intra-household bargaining refers to negotiations that occur between members of a household in order to arrive at decisions regarding the household unit, like whether to spend or save, whether to study or work.

- Intra-household bargaining

9 related topics


Family economics

Family economics applies economic concepts such as production, division of labor, distribution, and decision making to the family.


Sexual division of labor, intra-household bargaining, and the household production function.

Housewife hidden savings

Type of savings traditionally kept in the home by housewives in non-egalitarian marriages who are unbanked.

Depositing change in a piggy bank is a frequently used savings strategy.

It can be seen as a form of resistance to patriarchy, as well as a hedge against a husband's profligacy or as a contingency fund, or as security in case of divorce.

Martin Browning

Professor of Economics at the University of Oxford, Oxford, England, a Fellow of Nuffield College, Oxford, a Fellow of the Econometric Society, and an emeritus Fellow of the European Economic Association.

Coat of arms

He has worked in the areas of intrahousehold decision making; demand analysis; consumption and saving, and its interaction with labor supply.

Female foeticide in India

Abortion of a female foetus outside of legal methods.

This graph shows people's preferences for having a son when females become more expensive and the substitution effect is factored in.
Male to female sex ratio for India, based on its official census data, from 1941 through 2011. The data suggests the existence of high sex ratios before and after the arrival of ultrasound-based prenatal care and sex screening technologies in India.
2011 Census sex ratio map for the states and Union Territories of India, boys per 100 girls in 0 to 1 age group.
This graph shows the marriage market for women in India and how the lack of females due to female foeticide results in a lower supply of women. The gap is bridged by men kidnapping or importing wives from other regions.
A sign in an Indian hospital stating that prenatal sex determination is a crime.

This is based on the unitary model of the household where the household is seen as a single decision making entity under the same budget constraint.

Trevon Logan

American economist.

His research mainly focuses on economic history, including studies of African American migration, economic analysis of illegal markets, the economics of marriage transfers, and measures of historical living standards, with an emphasis on racial disparities in the United States.

Shelly Lundberg

Economist and currently holds the positions of Leonard Broom Professor of Demography at the University of California, Santa Barbara, where she serves as Associate Director of the Broom Center for Demography.

Former Chairman of the Federal Reserve Alan Greenspan, who obtained his Ph.D. in economics from New York University, testifies before the U.S. House Committee on Financial Services

A second area of Shelly Lundberg's research addresses bargaining within married couples.


Literacy in its broadest sense describes "particular ways of thinking about and doing reading and writing" with the purpose of understanding or expressing thoughts or ideas in written form in some specific context of use.

Adult literacy rates, 2015 or most recent observation
World illiteracy has halved between 1970 and 2015
Literate and illiterate world population between 1800 and 2016
Illiteracy rate in France in the 18th and 19th centuries
Bill of sale of a male slave and a building in Shuruppak, Sumerian tablet, circa 2600 BC
Adult literacy rates have increased at a constant pace since 1950.
Literacy has rapidly spread in several regions over the last twenty-five years.
Adult literacy rate, male (%), 2015
Adult literacy rate, female (%), 2015
Gender parity indices in youth literacy rates by region, 1990–2015. Progress towards gender parity in literacy started after 1990.
Youth and adult literacy rate, 2000–2016 and projections to 2030
Students in grade 2 who can't read a single word
Brain areas involved in literacy acquisition
Sample milestone sketch
Reviewing photos after photowalk
Integrating Common Core content into language training with MELL
Including orality
Sample covers of completed authorship created books
Most illiterate persons now live in Southern Asia or sub-Saharan Africa.
Dutch schoolmaster and children, 1662
One-room school in Alabama c. 1935
Native youth in front of Carlisle Indian Industrial School in Pennsylvania c. 1900
Young school girls in Paktia Province of Afghanistan
Three Laotian girls sit outside their school, each absorbed in reading a book they received at a rural school book party.
The University of Peradeniya's Sarachchandra open-air theatre, named in memory of Ediriweera Sarachchandra, Sri Lanka's premier playwright.

Martha Nussbaum suggests illiterate women are more vulnerable to becoming trapped in an abusive marriage, given that illiteracy limits their employment opportunities and worsens their intra-household bargaining position.

Carmen Diana Deere

American feminist economist who is an expert on land policy and agrarian reform, rural social movements, and gender in Latin American development.

The first issue of Ms. magazine examined feminist economics in a piece by Jane O'Reilly

From 2013 to 2015, funded by UN Women, Deere conducted international research, the "Gender Asset Gap Project," focused on improving statistics on gender and assets as well as analysis of women's intra-household bargaining power.

Feminist economics

Critical study of economics and economies, with a focus on gender-aware and inclusive economic inquiry and policy analysis.

The first issue of Ms. magazine examined feminist economics in a piece by Jane O'Reilly
Marilyn Waring, author of If Women Counted (1988)
A Colombian domestic worker. Neighborhood friends and family sharing household and childcare responsibilities is an example of non-market activity performed outside of the traditional labor market.
Women's weekly earnings as a percentage of men's in the U.S. by age, 1979-2005
Percentage gap between median men's and women's wages, for full-time workers by OECD country, 2006. In the U.K., the most significant factors associated with the remaining gender pay gap are part-time work, education, the size of the firm a person is employed in, and occupational segregation (women are under-represented in managerial and high-paying professional occupations.)
U.S. women's weekly earnings, employment, and percentage of men's earnings, by industry, 2009

Amartya Sen shows how social norms that devalue women's unpaid work in the household often disadvantage women in intra-household bargaining.