Intracranial pressure

increased intracranial pressureintracranial hypertensionpressure inside the skullintra-cranial pressurepressure within the skullraised intracranial pressureMonro-Kellie Doctrineblood in the brainbrain pressureIncreased cranial pressure
Intracranial pressure (ICP) is the pressure inside the skull and thus in the brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).wikipedia
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Cerebrospinal fluid

cerebral spinal fluidCSFspinal fluid
Intracranial pressure (ICP) is the pressure inside the skull and thus in the brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
This can reveal the intracranial pressure, as well as indicate diseases including infections of the brain or its surrounding meninges.

Vomiting

emeticvomitemesis
In general, symptoms and signs that suggest a rise in ICP include headache, vomiting without nausea, ocular palsies, altered level of consciousness, back pain and papilledema.
Vomiting can be caused by a wide variety of conditions; it may be present as a specific response to ailments like gastritis or poisoning, or as a non-specific sequela ranging from brain tumors and elevated intracranial pressure to overexposure to ionizing radiation.

Papilledema

papilloedemaP'''apilledemapartial loss of vision
In general, symptoms and signs that suggest a rise in ICP include headache, vomiting without nausea, ocular palsies, altered level of consciousness, back pain and papilledema.
Papilledema or papilloedema is optic disc swelling that is caused by increased intracranial pressure due to any cause.

Cushing reflex

Cushing's triad
In addition to the above, if mass effect is present with resulting displacement of brain tissue, additional signs may include pupillary dilatation, abducens palsies, and the Cushing's triad.
Cushing reflex (also referred to as the vasopressor response, the Cushing effect, the Cushing reaction, the Cushing phenomenon, the Cushing response, or Cushing's Law) is a physiological nervous system response to increased intracranial pressure (ICP) that results in Cushing's triad of increased blood pressure, irregular breathing, and bradycardia.

Mydriasis

dilated pupilsmydriaticpupil dilation
In addition to the above, if mass effect is present with resulting displacement of brain tissue, additional signs may include pupillary dilatation, abducens palsies, and the Cushing's triad.
Fixed, unilateral mydriasis could be a symptom of raised intracranial pressure.

Sixth nerve palsy

Sixth (abducent) nerve palsyabducens palsiesabducens palsy
In addition to the above, if mass effect is present with resulting displacement of brain tissue, additional signs may include pupillary dilatation, abducens palsies, and the Cushing's triad.
Because the nerve emerges near the bottom of the brain, it is often the first nerve compressed when there is any rise in intracranial pressure.

Nausea

nauseousnauseatedvomiting
In general, symptoms and signs that suggest a rise in ICP include headache, vomiting without nausea, ocular palsies, altered level of consciousness, back pain and papilledema.
These include: pancreatitis, small bowel obstruction, appendicitis, cholecystitis, hepatitis, Addisonian crisis, diabetic ketoacidosis, increased intracranial pressure, Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension, brain tumors, meningitis, heart attack, carbon monoxide poisoning and many others.

Hydrocephalus

hydrocephalyhydrocephalicobstructive hydrocephalus
An increase in pressure, most commonly due to head injury leading to intracranial hematoma or cerebral edema, can crush brain tissue, shift brain structures, contribute to hydrocephalus, cause brain herniation, and restrict blood supply to the brain.
This typically causes increased pressure inside the skull.

Brain tumor

brain cancerbrain tumourbrain tumors
Headaches as a result of raised intracranial pressure can be an early symptom of brain cancer.

Acute liver failure

fulminant liver failurefulminant hepatic failureliver failure
Unfortunately, signs of elevated intracranial pressure, such as papilledema and loss of pupillary reflexes, are not reliable, and occur late in the disease process.

Idiopathic intracranial hypertension

pseudotumor cerebribenign intracranial hypertensionIIH
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), previously known as pseudotumor cerebri and benign intracranial hypertension, is a condition characterized by increased intracranial pressure (pressure around the brain) without a detectable cause.

Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis

cerebral venous thrombosisdural sinus thrombosissagittal sinus thrombosis
The disease may be complicated by raised intracranial pressure, which may warrant surgical intervention such as the placement of a shunt.

Skull

craniumcranialhuman skull
Intracranial pressure (ICP) is the pressure inside the skull and thus in the brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
In cases in which the compensation does not effectively provide enough space for the growing brain, craniosynostosis results in increased intracranial pressure leading possibly to visual impairment, sleeping impairment, eating difficulties, or an impairment of mental development.

Craniosynostosis

craniosynostosescraniostenosisCloverleaf skull
In cases in which the compensation does not effectively provide enough space for the growing brain, craniosynostosis results in increased intracranial pressure leading possibly to visual impairment, sleeping impairment, eating difficulties, or an impairment of mental development combined with a significant reduction in IQ.

Traumatic brain injury

traumatic brain injuriesbrain traumabrain injury
One of the most damaging aspects of brain trauma and other conditions, directly correlated with poor outcome, is an elevated intracranial pressure.
These processes include alterations in cerebral blood flow and the pressure within the skull.

Millimetre of mercury

mmHgmm Hgmillimetres of mercury
ICP is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and, at rest, is normally 7–15 mmHg for a supine adult.

Brain herniation

uncal herniationherniationBrain compression
An increase in pressure, most commonly due to head injury leading to intracranial hematoma or cerebral edema, can crush brain tissue, shift brain structures, contribute to hydrocephalus, cause brain herniation, and restrict blood supply to the brain.
Herniation can be caused by a number of factors that cause a mass effect and increase intracranial pressure (ICP): these include traumatic brain injury, intracranial hemorrhage, or brain tumor.

Chiari malformation

Arnold-Chiari malformationArnold–Chiari malformationChiari I malformation

Pulse pressure

arterial Pulse Pressure
Cushing's triad involves an increased systolic blood pressure, a widened pulse pressure, bradycardia, and an abnormal respiratory pattern.
A high pulse pressure combined with bradycardia and an irregular breathing pattern is associated with increased intracranial pressure and should be reported to a physician immediately.

Meningitis

spinal meningitisbacterial meningitiscerebral meningitis
The brain tissue may swell, pressure inside the skull may increase and the swollen brain may herniate through the skull base.

Non-invasive measurement of intracranial pressure

measurementnon-invasivenon-invasive intracranial pressure measurement
Non-invasive measurement of intracranial pressure is being studied.
Increased intracranial pressure (ICP) is one of the major causes of secondary brain ischemia that accompanies a variety of pathological conditions, most notably traumatic brain injury (TBI), strokes, and intracranial hemorrhages.

Intracranial hemorrhage

intracranial bleedingintracranial haemorrhageintracranial hematoma
An increase in pressure, most commonly due to head injury leading to intracranial hematoma or cerebral edema, can crush brain tissue, shift brain structures, contribute to hydrocephalus, cause brain herniation, and restrict blood supply to the brain.
Intracranial hemorrhage is a serious medical emergency because the buildup of blood within the skull can lead to increases in intracranial pressure, which can crush delicate brain tissue or limit its blood supply.

George Kellie

Dr Kellie
The Monro–Kellie hypothesis is named after Edinburgh doctors Alexander Monro and George Kellie.
Dr George Kellie MD, FRSE (1770–1829) was a Scottish surgeon who, together with Alexander Monro secundus gave his name to the Monro-Kellie doctrine, a concept which relates intracranial pressure to the volume of intracranial contents and is a basic tenet of our understanding of the neuropathology of raised intracranial pressure.

Cerebral perfusion pressure

cerebral perfusioncerebrovascular
Cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), the pressure of blood flowing to the brain, is normally fairly constant due to autoregulation, but for abnormal mean arterial pressure (MAP) or abnormal ICP the cerebral perfusion pressure is calculated by subtracting the intracranial pressure from the mean arterial pressure: CPP = MAP − ICP.
It must be maintained within narrow limits because too little pressure could cause brain tissue to become ischemic (having inadequate blood flow), and too much could raise intracranial pressure (ICP).

External ventricular drain

extraventricular drainventricular drain
This type of drain is known as an external ventricular drain (EVD).
An external ventricular drain (EVD), also known as a ventriculostomy or extraventricular drain, is a device used in neurosurgery to treat hydrocephalus and relieve elevated intracranial pressure when the normal flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inside the brain is obstructed.