A report on Intrathecal administration

Diagrammatic representation of a section across the top of the skull, showing the membranes of the brain, etc. ("Subarachnoid cavity" visible at left.)

Route of administration for drugs via an injection into the spinal canal, or into the subarachnoid space so that it reaches the cerebrospinal fluid and is useful in spinal anesthesia, chemotherapy, or pain management applications.

- Intrathecal administration
Diagrammatic representation of a section across the top of the skull, showing the membranes of the brain, etc. ("Subarachnoid cavity" visible at left.)

13 related topics with Alpha

Overall

A woman being treated with docetaxel chemotherapy for breast cancer. Cold mittens and cold booties are placed on her hands and feet to reduce harm to her nails.

Chemotherapy

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Type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.

Type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.

A woman being treated with docetaxel chemotherapy for breast cancer. Cold mittens and cold booties are placed on her hands and feet to reduce harm to her nails.
Dose response relationship of cell killing by chemotherapeutic drugs on normal and cancer cells. At high doses the percentage of normal and cancer cells killed is very similar. For this reason, doses are chosen where anti-tumour activity exceeds normal cell death.
5-FU dose management results in significantly better response and survival rates versus BSA dosing.
5-FU dose management avoids serious side effects experienced with BSA dosing
Two DNA bases that are cross-linked by a nitrogen mustard. Different nitrogen mustards will have different chemical groups (R). The nitrogen mustards most commonly alkylate the N7 nitrogen of guanine (as shown here) but other atoms can be alkylated.
Deoxycytidine (left) and two anti-metabolite drugs (center and right); gemcitabine and decitabine. The drugs are very similar but they have subtle differences in their chemical structure.
Vinca alkaloids prevent the assembly of microtubules, whereas taxanes prevent their disassembly. Both mechanisms cause defective mitosis.
Topoisomerase I and II Inhibitors
Two girls with acute lymphoblastic leukemia receiving chemotherapy. The girl on the left has a central venous catheter inserted in her neck. The girl on the right has a peripheral venous catheter. The arm board stabilizes the arm during needle insertion. Anti-cancer IV drip is seen at top right.
The four phases of the cell cycle. G1 – the initial growth phase. S – the phase in which DNA is synthesised. G2 – the second growth phase in preparation for cell division. M – mitosis; where the cell divides to produce two daughter cells that continue the cell cycle.
Sidney Farber did pioneering work in chemotherapy
Scanning electron micrograph of mesoporous silica; a type of nanoparticle used in the delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs.

If the cancer has central nervous system involvement, or with meningeal disease, intrathecal chemotherapy may be administered.

Active and inactive μ-opioid receptors

Pain management

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Aspect of medicine and health care involving relief of pain in various dimensions, from acute and simple to chronic and challenging.

Aspect of medicine and health care involving relief of pain in various dimensions, from acute and simple to chronic and challenging.

Active and inactive μ-opioid receptors
Young children can indicate their level of pain by pointing to the appropriate face on a children's pain scale

Interventional radiology procedures for pain control, typically used for chronic back pain, include epidural steroid injections, facet joint injections, neurolytic blocks, spinal cord stimulators and intrathecal drug delivery system implants.

A localized reaction to intravenous morphine caused by histamine release in the veins

Morphine

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Pain medication of the opiate family that is found naturally in opium, a dark brown resin in poppies .

Pain medication of the opiate family that is found naturally in opium, a dark brown resin in poppies .

A localized reaction to intravenous morphine caused by histamine release in the veins
Before the Morphine by Santiago Rusiñol
Morphine Hydrochloride Ampoule for Veterinary Use
Latex bleeding from a freshly-scored seed pod
Morphine biosynthesis in the opium poppy
Chemical structure of morphine. The benzylisoquinoline backbone is shown in green.
Morphine structure showing its standard ring lettering and carbon numbering system.
Same structure, but in a three-dimensional perspective.
First generation production of alkaloids from licit latex-derived opium
Friedrich Sertürner
Advertisement for curing morphine addiction, c. 1900
An ampoule of morphine with integral needle for immediate use. Also known as a "syrette". From WWII. On display at the Army Medical Services Museum.
Example of different morphine tablets
Two capsules (5 mg & 10 mg) of morphine sulfate extended- release
1 milliliter ampoule containing 10 mg of morphine

There are numerous methods used to administer morphine: oral; sublingual; via inhalation; injection into a muscle; by injection under the skin; intravenously; injection into the space around the spinal cord; transdermal; or via rectal suppository.

Chemical structure of morphine, the prototypical opioid.

Opioid

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Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.

Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.

Chemical structure of morphine, the prototypical opioid.
US. Top line represents the number of benzodiazepine deaths that also involved opioids. Bottom line represents benzodiazepine deaths that did not involve opioids.
Locants of the morphine molecule
INTA: selective agonist of KOR-DOR and KOR-MOR heteromers. Does not recruit β-arrestin II. Antinociceptive devoid of aversion, tolerance, and dependence in mice.
A sample of raw opium
US yearly deaths from all opioid drugs. Included in this number are opioid analgesics, along with heroin and illicit .<ref name=NIDA-deaths/>
US yearly deaths involving other, predominately Fentanyl.<ref name=NIDA-deaths/>
US yearly deaths involving prescription opioids. is a category dominated by illegally acquired fentanyl, and has been excluded.<ref name=NIDA-deaths>Overdose Death Rates. By National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA).</ref>
US yearly overdose deaths involving heroin.<ref name=NIDA-deaths/>

intrathecal magnesium and zinc

Opium poppies such as this one provide ingredients for the class of analgesics called opiates

Analgesic

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Analgesic, pain reliever, or painkiller, is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve relief from pain .

Analgesic, pain reliever, or painkiller, is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve relief from pain .

Opium poppies such as this one provide ingredients for the class of analgesics called opiates
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Ziconotide, a blocker of potent N‐type voltage‐gated calcium channels, is administered intrathecally for the relief of severe, usually cancer-related pain.

Backflow of cerebrospinal fluid through a 25 gauge spinal needle after puncture of the arachnoid mater during initiation of spinal anaesthesia

Spinal anaesthesia

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Backflow of cerebrospinal fluid through a 25 gauge spinal needle after puncture of the arachnoid mater during initiation of spinal anaesthesia
Schematic drawing showing the principles of spinal anaesthesia.

Spinal anaesthesia (or spinal anesthesia), also called spinal block, subarachnoid block, intradural block and intrathecal block, is a form of neuraxial regional anaesthesia involving the injection of a local anaesthetic or opioid into the subarachnoid space, generally through a fine needle, usually 9 cm long.

Ziconotide

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Ziconotide (SNX–111; Prialt), also called intrathecal ziconotide (ITZ) because of its administration route, is an atypical analgesic agent for the amelioration of severe and chronic pain.

Cytarabine

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Chemotherapy medication used to treat acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

Chemotherapy medication used to treat acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

It is given by injection into a vein, under the skin, or into the cerebrospinal fluid.

The cerebrospinal fluid circulates in the subarachnoid space around the brain and spinal cord, and in the ventricles of the brain.

Cerebrospinal fluid

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Clear, colorless body fluid found within the tissue that surrounds the brain and spinal cord of all vertebrates.

Clear, colorless body fluid found within the tissue that surrounds the brain and spinal cord of all vertebrates.

The cerebrospinal fluid circulates in the subarachnoid space around the brain and spinal cord, and in the ventricles of the brain.
MRI showing pulsation of CSF
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Vials containing human cerebrospinal fluid

Some anaesthetics and chemotherapy are injected intrathecally into the subarachnoid space, where they spread around CSF, meaning substances that cannot cross the blood-brain barrier can still be active throughout the central nervous system.

Some members of Eli Lilly's vincristine research team

Vincristine

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Chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of types of cancer.

Chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of types of cancer.

Some members of Eli Lilly's vincristine research team

It is vital that it not be given intrathecally, as this causes paralysis and in most cases, death.