Intravenous therapy

intravenousintravenouslyinjection into a veinIVintravenous injectionintravenous fluidsintravenous infusionintravenous fluidintravenous dripintravenous administration
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers fluids directly into a vein.wikipedia
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Fluid replacement

fluid resuscitationhydrationrehydration
The intravenous route is the fastest way to deliver medications and fluid replacement throughout the body, because they are introduced directly into the circulation.
Fluids can be replaced with oral rehydration therapy (drinking), intravenous therapy, rectally such as with a Murphy drip, or by hypodermoclysis, the direct injection of fluid into the subcutaneous tissue.

Blood transfusion

transfusionblood transfusionstransfusions
Intravenous therapy may be used for fluid volume replacement, to correct electrolyte imbalances, to deliver medications, and for blood transfusions.
Blood transfusion is the process of transferring blood or blood products into one's circulation intravenously.

Injection (medicine)

injectioninjectabledepot
The intravenous route of administration can be used both for injections, using a syringe at higher pressures; as well as for infusions, typically using only the pressure supplied by gravity.
Parenteral injection includes subcutaneous, intramuscular, intravenous, intraperitoneal, intracardiac, intraarticular, and intracavernous injection.

Syringe

hypodermic syringesyringesdisposable syringe
The intravenous route of administration can be used both for injections, using a syringe at higher pressures; as well as for infusions, typically using only the pressure supplied by gravity.
Syringes are frequently used in clinical medicine to administer injections, infuse intravenous therapy into the bloodstream, apply compounds such as glue or lubricant, and draw/measure liquids.

Extravasation (intravenous)

extravasationanthracycline extravasationenters into the soft tissue around the vein
Vasopressors (such as norepinephrine, vasopressin, epinephrine, phenylephrine, among others) are typically infused through central lines to minimize the risk of extravasation.
Extravasation is the leakage of intravenously (IV) infused, and potentially damaging, medications into the extravascular tissue around the site of infusion.

Cannula

cannulationcannulaecannulated
It is commonly believed that fluid can be pushed faster through a central line; however, the diameter of each lumen is often smaller than that of a large-bore peripheral cannula.
Intravenous cannulae are the most common in hospital use.

Central venous catheter

central venous catheterscentral linecentral lines
Central IV lines have their catheters that are advanced through a vein and empty into a large central vein (a vein within the torso), usually the superior vena cava, inferior vena cava or even the right atrium of the heart.

Saline (medicine)

salinesaline solutionnormal saline
By injection into a vein it is used to treat dehydration such as from gastroenteritis and diabetic ketoacidosis.

Central venous pressure

CVPMean Venous Pressureright atrial pressure
Caregivers can also measure central venous pressure and other physiological variables through the central line.
CVP has been, and often still is, used as a surrogate for preload, and changes in CVP in response to infusions of intravenous fluid have been used to predict volume-responsiveness (i.e. whether more fluid will improve cardiac output).

Route of administration

parenteralroutes of administrationparenterally
The intravenous route of administration can be used both for injections, using a syringe at higher pressures; as well as for infusions, typically using only the pressure supplied by gravity. If intravenous access is unavailable, an intraosseous infusion may be used as an alternative route of administration. Certain types of medications can only be given intravenously, such as when there is insufficient uptake by other routes of administration such as enterally.
Common examples include oral and intravenous administration.

Intraosseous infusion

intraosseousintra-osseous line placementintraosseous (IO)
If intravenous access is unavailable, an intraosseous infusion may be used as an alternative route of administration.
This technique is used to provide fluids and medication when intravenous access is not available or not feasible.

Burn

burnsthird-degree burnsthird-degree burn
Extensive burns often require large amounts of intravenous fluid, due to capillary fluid leakage and tissue swelling.

Propofol

Diprivan2,6-diisopropylphenolMilk of amnesia
Examples include intravenous immunoglobulin and propofol.
It is given by injection into a vein.

Enteral administration

enteralenteral nutrition
Certain types of medications can only be given intravenously, such as when there is insufficient uptake by other routes of administration such as enterally.
This contrasts with parenteral nutrition or drug administration (Greek para, "besides" + enteros), which occurs from routes outside the GI tract, such as intravenous routes.

Bioavailability

bioavailableabsolute bioavailabilitybio-availability
The bioavailability of the IV medication is 100%, unlike oral medications where much of the medication is lost in digestion before entering circulation.
By definition, when a medication is administered intravenously, its bioavailability is 100%.

Chemotherapy

chemotherapeuticantineoplasticantineoplastic agent
Another indication is when the substances to be administered could irritate the blood vessel lining such as total parenteral nutrition, whose high glucose content can damage blood vessels, and some chemotherapy regimens.
Most chemotherapy is delivered intravenously, although a number of agents can be administered orally (e.g., melphalan, busulfan, capecitabine).

Immunoglobulin therapy

intravenous immunoglobulinIVIGintravenous immunoglobulins
Examples include intravenous immunoglobulin and propofol.
Depending on the formulation it can be given by injection into muscle, a vein, or under the skin.

Parenteral nutrition

total parenteral nutritionTPNintravenous feeding
Another indication is when the substances to be administered could irritate the blood vessel lining such as total parenteral nutrition, whose high glucose content can damage blood vessels, and some chemotherapy regimens.
Parenteral nutrition (PN) is the feeding of specialist nutritional products to a person intravenously, bypassing the usual process of eating and digestion.

Surgery

surgicalsurgeonsurgical procedure
Blood transfusions can be life-saving in some situations, such as massive blood loss due to trauma, or can be used to replace blood lost during surgery.
A set of vital signs are recorded, a peripheral IV line is placed, and pre-operative medications (antibiotics, sedatives, etc.) are given.

Fresh frozen plasma

FFPfresh-frozen human plasmafresh-frozen plasma
Early blood transfusions consisted of whole blood, but modern medical practice commonly uses only components of the blood, such as fresh frozen plasma or cryoprecipitate.
It is given by slow injection into a vein.

Whole blood

blood
Early blood transfusions consisted of whole blood, but modern medical practice commonly uses only components of the blood, such as fresh frozen plasma or cryoprecipitate.
It is given by injection into a vein.

Infusion pump

infusionpump systemMedical infusion pumps
An infusion pump allows precise control over the flow rate and total amount delivered.
An infusion pump infuses fluids, medication or nutrients into a patient's circulatory system.

Intravenous sodium bicarbonate

Sodium hydrogen carbonateBarosintravenous bicarbonate
A solution more specifically used for buffering purpose is intravenous sodium bicarbonate.
It is given by injection into a vein.

Ringer's lactate solution

Lactated Ringer's solutionRinger's lactateHartmann's solution
Lactated Ringer's solution also has some buffering effect.
It is given by injection into a vein or applied to the affected area.

Medical ultrasound

ultrasoundultrasonographymedical ultrasonography
They are often more difficult to insert correctly as the veins are not usually palpable and rely on an experienced clinician knowing the appropriate landmarks and/or using an ultrasound probe to safely locate and enter the vein.
Microbubbles-based contrast media is administrated intravenously in patient blood stream during the medical ultrasonography examination.