Inuit languages

InuitInuit languageInuktitutProject SurnameInuit dialectsInuit familyInuit-languageInuttutlanguagestraditional language
The Inuit languages are a closely related group of indigenous American languages traditionally spoken across the North American Arctic and to some extent in the subarctic in Labrador.wikipedia
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Inuit

InukEskimoEskimos
The Inuit live primarily in three countries: Greenland, Canada (specifically in the Nunatsiavut region of Labrador, the Nunavik region of Quebec, Nunavut, and the Northwest Territories), and the United States (specifically the coast of Alaska).
The Inuit languages are part of the Eskimo-Aleut family.

Yupik languages

YupikCentral Yup'ikYup'ik
The related Yupik languages are spoken in western and southern Alaska and in the far east of Russia, but are severely endangered in Russia today and spoken only in a few villages on the Chukchi Peninsula. The morphology and syntax of the Inuit languages vary to some degree between dialects, and the article Inuit grammar describes primarily central Nunavut dialects, but the basic principles will generally apply to all of them and to some degree to Yupik languages as well.
The Aleut and Eskimo languages diverged around 2000 BC (contemporaneous with the split of Indo-Iranian); within the Eskimo classification, the Yupik languages diverged from each other and from the Inuit language around 1000 AD.

Inupiaq language

IñupiaqInupiaqInupiat
The Eskimo languages of Alaska are called Inupiatun, but the variants of the Seward Peninsula are distinguished from the other Alaskan variants by calling them Qawiaraq, or for some dialects, Bering Strait Inupiatun.
Inupiaq, Inupiat, Inupiatun or Alaskan Inuit, is a group of dialects of the Inuit languages, spoken by the Iñupiat people in northern and northwestern Alaska, and part of the Northwest Territories.

Greenlandic language

GreenlandicKalaallisutGreenlandic Inuit
In other languages, it is often called Greenlandic or some cognate term.
It is closely related to the Inuit languages in Canada such as Inuktitut.

Inuktitut

ikuAivilingmiututike
In Canada, the word Inuktitut is routinely used to refer to all Canadian variants of the Inuit traditional language, and it is under that name that it is recognised as one of the official languages of Nunavut and the Northwest Territories. Until 1902, a possible enclave of the Dorset, the Sadlermiut (in modern Inuktitut spelling Sallirmiut), existed on Southampton Island.
Inuktitut (, syllabics ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ; from, "person" + -titut, "like", "in the manner of"), also Eastern Canadian Inuktitut, is one of the principal Inuit languages of Canada.

Inuvialuktun

iktIntikutInuit
However, one of the variants of western Nunavut is called Inuinnaqtun to distinguish itself from the dialects of eastern Canada, while the variants of the Northwest Territories are sometimes called Inuvialuktun and have in the past sometimes been called Inuktun.
Inuvialuktun, also known as Western Canadian Inuit, Western Canadian Inuktitut, and Western Canadian Inuktun, comprises several Inuit language varieties spoken in the northern Northwest Territories and Nunavut by those Canadian Inuit who call themselves Inuvialuit.

Inuinnaqtun

Inuinnaq
However, one of the variants of western Nunavut is called Inuinnaqtun to distinguish itself from the dialects of eastern Canada, while the variants of the Northwest Territories are sometimes called Inuvialuktun and have in the past sometimes been called Inuktun.
Inuinnaqtun (natively meaning like the real human beings/peoples), is an indigenous Inuit language of Canada and a dialect of Inuvialuktun.

Eskimo–Aleut languages

Eskimo–AleutEskimoEskimo-Aleut
The language of the Inuit is an Eskimo–Aleut language.
The Eskimo languages are divided into two branches: the Yupik languages, spoken in western and southwestern Alaska and in easternmost Siberia, and the Inuit languages, spoken in northern Alaska, Canada and Greenland.

Nunavut

NUTerritory of NunavutGovernment of Nunavut
The Inuit live primarily in three countries: Greenland, Canada (specifically in the Nunatsiavut region of Labrador, the Nunavik region of Quebec, Nunavut, and the Northwest Territories), and the United States (specifically the coast of Alaska). In Canada, the word Inuktitut is routinely used to refer to all Canadian variants of the Inuit traditional language, and it is under that name that it is recognised as one of the official languages of Nunavut and the Northwest Territories.
In his 2000 commissioned report (Aajiiqatigiingniq Language of Instruction Research Paper) to the Nunavut Department of Education, Ian Martin of York University stated a "long-term threat to Inuit languages from English is found everywhere, and current school language policies and practices on language are contributing to that threat" if Nunavut schools follow the Northwest Territories model.

Eskimo

EsquimauxEsquimaux IndiansInuit
See the article on Eskimo for more information on this word.
The Eskimo sub-family consists of the Inuit language and Yupik language sub-groups.

Iñupiat

InupiatIñupiaqInupiaq
Of the roughly 13,000 Alaskan Iñupiat, as few as 3000 may still be able to speak the Iñupiaq, with most of them over the age of 40. Alaskan Inupiat speak four distinct dialects:
Iñupiaq groups, in common with Inuit-speaking groups, often have a name ending in "miut," which means 'a people of'.

Inuttitut

Labrador InuttutNunatsiavummiut
The Inuit language of Quebec is called Inuttitut by its speakers, and often by other people, but this is a minor variation in pronunciation.
Although Nunatsiavut claims over 4,000 inhabitants of Inuit descent, only 550 reported any Inuit language to be their mother tongue in the 2001 census, mostly in the town of Nain.

Inuit grammar

The morphology and syntax of the Inuit languages vary to some degree between dialects, and the article Inuit grammar describes primarily central Nunavut dialects, but the basic principles will generally apply to all of them and to some degree to Yupik languages as well.
The Inuit language, like other Eskimo–Aleut languages, exhibits a regular agglutinative and heavily suffixing morphology.

Disc number

disc numbers
Thus, in the 1940s, the Inuit were given disc numbers, recorded on a special leather ID tag, like a dog tag.
Disc numbers, or ujamiit or ujamik in the Inuit language, were used by the Government of Canada in lieu of surnames for the Inuit and were similar to dog tags.

Polysynthetic language

polysyntheticpolysynthesispolysynthetic languages
(See also: Agglutinative language and Polysynthetic language) All Inuit language words begin with a root morpheme to which other morphemes are suffixed.
At the same time, the question of whether to call a particular language polysynthetic is complicated by the fact that morpheme and word boundaries are not always clear cut, and languages may be highly synthetic in one area but less synthetic in other areas (e.g., verbs and nouns in Southern Athabaskan languages or Inuit languages).

Denmark

Danish🇩🇰Constituent country
In addition to the territories listed below, some 7,000 Greenlandic speakers are reported to live in mainland Denmark, and according to the 2001 census roughly 200 self-reported Inuktitut native speakers regularly live in parts of Canada which are outside traditional Inuit lands.
Greenlandic or "Kalaallisut" belongs to the Eskimo–Aleut languages; it is closely related to the Inuit languages in Canada, such as Inuktitut, and entirely unrelated to Danish.

Canada

🇨🇦CanadianCAN
In addition to the territories listed below, some 7,000 Greenlandic speakers are reported to live in mainland Denmark, and according to the 2001 census roughly 200 self-reported Inuktitut native speakers regularly live in parts of Canada which are outside traditional Inuit lands.
Of these, only the Cree, Inuktitut and Ojibway languages have a large enough population of fluent speakers to be considered viable to survive in the long term.

Iqaluit

Frobisher BayIqaluit, NunavutIqualuit
Traditionally, Inuit describe dialect differences by means of place names to describe local idiosyncrasies in language: The dialect of Igloolik versus the dialect of Iqaluit, for example.
Abe Okpik, politician, worked on Project Surname to obtain family names for Inuit rather than disc numbers and first Inuk to sit (appointed) on what is now the NWT Legislative Assembly

Sadlermiut

Until 1902, a possible enclave of the Dorset, the Sadlermiut (in modern Inuktitut spelling Sallirmiut), existed on Southampton Island.
The neighbouring Inuit reported that they used "baby talk", but it is not clear if this means they spoke a distinct variety of Inuit language, or that they used pidgin Inuktitut as a contact language.

Inuktitut syllabics

syllabicsInuktitutak'''ł'''ak
Most Inuktitut in Nunavut and Nunavik is written using a script called Inuktitut syllabics, based on Canadian Aboriginal syllabics.
In 1976, the Language Commission of the Inuit Cultural Institute made it the co-official script for the Inuit languages, along with the Latin script.

Tunumiit dialect

TunumiitEast GreenlandicTunumiisut
Tunumiit oraasiat, the Tunumiit dialect, (or Tunumiisut in Greenlandic, often East Greenlandic in other languages), is the dialect of eastern Greenland. It differs sharply from other Inuit language variants and has roughly 3000 speakers according to Ethnologue.

Inuktun

Avannarhuarmiutut (North Thule Greenlandic)North GreenlandicPolar Eskimo
Inuktun (Or Avanersuarmiutut in Greenlandic) is the dialect of the area around Qaanaaq in northern Greenland. It is sometimes called the Thule dialect or North Greenlandic. This area is the northernmost settlement area of the Inuit and has a relatively small number of speakers. It is reputed to be fairly close to the North Baffin dialect, since a group of migratory Inuit from Baffin Island settled in the area during the 19th and early 20th centuries. It counts under 1000 speakers according to Ethnologue.

North Baffin dialect

NorthNorth Baffin
Inuktun (Or Avanersuarmiutut in Greenlandic) is the dialect of the area around Qaanaaq in northern Greenland. It is sometimes called the Thule dialect or North Greenlandic. This area is the northernmost settlement area of the Inuit and has a relatively small number of speakers. It is reputed to be fairly close to the North Baffin dialect, since a group of migratory Inuit from Baffin Island settled in the area during the 19th and early 20th centuries. It counts under 1000 speakers according to Ethnologue.

Inuit Sign Language

InuiuukInuit UukturausingitAtgangmuurngniq
Inuit Sign Language
At least since the 18th century, hearing Inuit used some form of sign language for trade and communication between various Inuit languages, a similar role to that played by Plains Sign Language further south.

Abe Okpik

Abraham Okpik
Then in 1969, the government started Project Surname, headed by Abe Okpik, to replace number-names with patrilineal "family surnames".
In the mid-1960s the Northwest Territories Council undertook to replace the disc numbers with last names under Project Surname.