Inulin

F12 Inulin
Inulins are a group of naturally occurring polysaccharides produced by many types of plants, industrially most often extracted from chicory.wikipedia
165 Related Articles

Chicory

chickoryBelgian Endivechicory root
Inulins are a group of naturally occurring polysaccharides produced by many types of plants, industrially most often extracted from chicory. Inulin is a natural storage carbohydrate present in more than 36,000 species of plants, including wheat, onion, bananas, garlic, asparagus, Jerusalem artichoke, and chicory.
In the 21st century, inulin, an extract from chicory root, has been used in food manufacturing as a sweetener and source of dietary fiber.

Starch

starcheswheat starchrice starch
Most plants that synthesize and store inulin do not store other forms of carbohydrate such as starch.
An exception is the family Asteraceae (asters, daisies and sunflowers), where starch is replaced by the fructan inulin.

Jerusalem artichoke

JerusalemsunchokeArtichoke, Jerusalem
Inulin is a natural storage carbohydrate present in more than 36,000 species of plants, including wheat, onion, bananas, garlic, asparagus, Jerusalem artichoke, and chicory.
It is rich in the carbohydrate inulin (8 to 13% ), which is a polymer of the monosaccharide fructose.

Prebiotic (nutrition)

prebioticprebioticspre
Because of the β(2,1) linkages, inulin is not digested by enzymes in the human alimentary system, contributing to its functional properties: reduced calorie value, dietary fiber, and prebiotic effects.
Fructans are a category of carbohydrate consisting of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and inulins, while galactans consist of galactooligosaccharides (GOS).

Creatinine

serum creatininenormal renal functioncreatinin
Using inulin to measure kidney function is the "gold standard" for comparison with other means of estimating creatinine clearance. These measures, which involve clearance of such substrates as EDTA, iohexol, cystatin C, 125 I-iothalamate (sodium radioiothalamate), the chromium radioisotope 51 Cr (chelated with EDTA), and creatinine, have had their utility confirmed in large cohorts of patients with chronic kidney disease.
(In the absence of secretion, creatinine behaves like inulin.)

Sinistrin

polyfructosan
Inulin and its analog sinistrin are used to help measure kidney function by determining the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), which is the volume of fluid filtered from the renal (kidney) glomerular capillaries into the Bowman's capsule per unit time.
As it is the case with similar substances, such as fructans or inulin, sinistrin acts as an energy storage molecule in plants.

Fructan

fructansSources of fructans
The inulins belong to a class of dietary fibers known as fructans.
1-linked: In Inulin, the fructosyl residues are linked by β-2,1-linkages.

Sugar

sugarssugar tradesugar cube
The extraction process for inulin is similar to obtaining sugar from sugar beets.
Through photosynthesis, plants produce glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P), a phosphated 3-carbon sugar that is used by the cell to make monosaccharides such as glucose or (as in cane and beet) sucrose . Monosaccharides may be further converted into structural polysaccharides such as cellulose and pectin for cell wall construction or into energy reserves in the form of storage polysaccharides such as starch or inulin.

Renal function

glomerular filtration ratekidney functioncreatinine clearance
Using inulin to measure kidney function is the "gold standard" for comparison with other means of estimating creatinine clearance. Inulin and its analog sinistrin are used to help measure kidney function by determining the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), which is the volume of fluid filtered from the renal (kidney) glomerular capillaries into the Bowman's capsule per unit time. This property of inulin allows the clearance of inulin to be used clinically as a highly accurate measure of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) — the rate of plasma from the afferent arteriole that is filtered into Bowman's capsule measured in ml/min.
The GFR can be determined by injecting inulin or the inulin-analog sinistrin into the plasma.

FODMAP

Low-FODMAP dietdiet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyolslow-FODMAP diets
Conversely, it is also considered a FODMAP, a class of carbohydrates which are rapidly fermented in the colon producing gas and drawing water into the colon.
Sources of fructans include wheat, rye, barley, onion, garlic, Jerusalem and globe artichoke, beetroot, dandelion leaves, the white part of leeks, the white part of spring onion, brussels sprouts, savoy cabbage and prebiotics such as fructooligosaccharides (FOS), oligofructose and inulin.

Cystatin C

CST3
These measures, which involve clearance of such substrates as EDTA, iohexol, cystatin C, 125 I-iothalamate (sodium radioiothalamate), the chromium radioisotope 51 Cr (chelated with EDTA), and creatinine, have had their utility confirmed in large cohorts of patients with chronic kidney disease.
Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), a marker of kidney health, is most accurately measured by injecting compounds such as inulin, radioisotopes such as 51 chromium-EDTA, 125 I-iothalamate, 99m Tc-DTPA or radiocontrast agents such as iohexol, but these techniques are complicated, costly, time-consuming and have potential side-effects.

Dietary fiber

fiberdietary fibresoluble fiber
The inulins belong to a class of dietary fibers known as fructans. In the United States in 2018, the Food and Drug Administration approved inulin as a dietary fiber ingredient used to improve the nutritional value of manufactured food products.
Dietary fiber consists of non-starch polysaccharides and other plant components such as cellulose, resistant starch, resistant dextrins, inulin, lignins, chitins, pectins, beta-glucans, and oligosaccharides.

Flatulence

fartflatusflatulent
Inulin-containing foods can be rather gassy, in particular for those unaccustomed to inulin, and these foods should be consumed in moderation at first.
Flatulence-producing foods are typically high in certain polysaccharides, especially oligosaccharides such as inulin.

Camassia

camascamas rootCamas lilies
Camas (Camassia spp.)
A pit-cooked camas bulb looks and tastes something like baked sweet potato, but sweeter, and with more crystalline fibers due to the presence of inulin in the bulbs.

Yacón

yacon
Yacón (Smallanthus sonchifolius)
Their texture and flavour are very similar to jicama, mainly differing in that yacón has some slightly sweet, resinous, and floral (similar to violet) undertones to its flavour, probably due to the presence of inulin, which produces the sweet taste of the roots of elecampane, as well.

Clearance (pharmacology)

clearanceclearedelimination
This property of inulin allows the clearance of inulin to be used clinically as a highly accurate measure of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) — the rate of plasma from the afferent arteriole that is filtered into Bowman's capsule measured in ml/min.
Inulin clearance is also used to estimate glomerular filtration rate.

Elecampane

Inula helenium
He found “a peculiar substance” from Inula helenium roots by boiling-water extraction.
Besides the storage polysaccharide inulin (C 6 H 12 O 6 [C 6 H 10 O 5 ] n ), a polymer of fructose, the root contains helenin (C 15 H 20 O 2 ), a stearoptene, which may be prepared in white acicular crystals, insoluble in water, but freely soluble in alcohol.

Pachyrhizus erosus

jicamajícamaSingkamas
Jicama (Pachyrhizus erosus)
Jícama is high in carbohydrates in the form of dietary fiber (notably inulin).

Polysaccharide

polysaccharidescomplex carbohydratesheteropolysaccharide
Inulins are a group of naturally occurring polysaccharides produced by many types of plants, industrially most often extracted from chicory.

Plant

plantsfloraplant kingdom
Inulins are a group of naturally occurring polysaccharides produced by many types of plants, industrially most often extracted from chicory.

Root

adventitious rootsrootsplant roots
Inulin is used by some plants as a means of storing energy and is typically found in roots or rhizomes.

Rhizome

rhizomatousrhizomesbotanical rhizome
Inulin is used by some plants as a means of storing energy and is typically found in roots or rhizomes.

Nutrition

nutritionalnutrition sciencenutritional science
In the United States in 2018, the Food and Drug Administration approved inulin as a dietary fiber ingredient used to improve the nutritional value of manufactured food products.

Gold standard (test)

gold standardgold standard testbenchmark
Using inulin to measure kidney function is the "gold standard" for comparison with other means of estimating creatinine clearance.

Wheat

cornTriticumdwarf wheat
Inulin is a natural storage carbohydrate present in more than 36,000 species of plants, including wheat, onion, bananas, garlic, asparagus, Jerusalem artichoke, and chicory.