Inulin

F12 Inulin
Inulins are a group of naturally occurring polysaccharides produced by many types of plants, industrially most often extracted from chicory.wikipedia
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Chicory

chickoryBelgian Endivechicory root
Inulins are a group of naturally occurring polysaccharides produced by many types of plants, industrially most often extracted from chicory. Inulin is a natural storage carbohydrate present in more than 36,000 species of plants, including wheat, onion, bananas, garlic, asparagus, Jerusalem artichoke, and chicory.
In the 21st century, inulin, an extract from chicory root, has been used in food manufacturing as a sweetener and source of dietary fiber.

Starch

starcheswheat starchrice starch
Most plants that synthesize and store inulin do not store other forms of carbohydrate such as starch.
An exception is the family Asteraceae (asters, daisies and sunflowers), where starch is replaced by the fructan inulin.

Sinistrin

polyfructosan
Inulin and its analog sinistrin are used to help measure kidney function by determining the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), which is the volume of fluid filtered from the renal (kidney) glomerular capillaries into the Bowman's capsule per unit time.
As it is the case with similar substances, such as fructans or inulin, sinistrin acts as an energy storage molecule in plants.

Jerusalem artichoke

JerusalemsunchokeArtichoke, Jerusalem
Inulin is a natural storage carbohydrate present in more than 36,000 species of plants, including wheat, onion, bananas, garlic, asparagus, Jerusalem artichoke, and chicory.
It is rich in the carbohydrate inulin (8 to 13% ), which is a polymer of the monosaccharide fructose.

Prebiotic (nutrition)

prebioticprebioticspre
Because of the β(2,1) linkages, inulin is not digested by enzymes in the human alimentary system, contributing to its functional properties: reduced calorie value, dietary fiber, and prebiotic effects.
Fructans are a category of carbohydrate consisting of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and inulins, while galactans consist of galactooligosaccharides (GOS).

Dietary fiber

fiberdietary fibresoluble fiber
The inulins belong to a class of dietary fibers known as fructans.
Dietary fiber consists of non-starch polysaccharides and other plant components such as cellulose, resistant starch, resistant dextrins, inulin, lignins, chitins, pectins, beta-glucans, and oligosaccharides.

Renal function

glomerular filtration ratekidney functioncreatinine clearance
Inulin and its analog sinistrin are used to help measure kidney function by determining the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), which is the volume of fluid filtered from the renal (kidney) glomerular capillaries into the Bowman's capsule per unit time. Using inulin to measure kidney function is the "gold standard" for comparison with other means of estimating creatinine clearance. This property of inulin allows the clearance of inulin to be used clinically as a highly accurate measure of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) — the rate of plasma from the afferent arteriole that is filtered into Bowman's capsule measured in ml/min.
The GFR can be determined by injecting inulin or the inulin-analog sinistrin into the plasma.

Creatinine

serum creatininenormal renal functioncreatinin
Using inulin to measure kidney function is the "gold standard" for comparison with other means of estimating creatinine clearance. These measures, which involve clearance of such substrates as EDTA, iohexol, cystatin C, 125 I-iothalamate (sodium radioiothalamate), the chromium radioisotope 51 Cr (chelated with EDTA), and creatinine, have had their utility confirmed in large cohorts of patients with chronic kidney disease.
(In the absence of secretion, creatinine behaves like inulin.)

Cystatin C

CST3
These measures, which involve clearance of such substrates as EDTA, iohexol, cystatin C, 125 I-iothalamate (sodium radioiothalamate), the chromium radioisotope 51 Cr (chelated with EDTA), and creatinine, have had their utility confirmed in large cohorts of patients with chronic kidney disease.
Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), a marker of kidney health, is most accurately measured by injecting compounds such as inulin, radioisotopes such as 51 chromium-EDTA, 125 I-iothalamate, 99m Tc-DTPA or radiocontrast agents such as iohexol, but these techniques are complicated, costly, time-consuming and have potential side-effects.

Flatulence

fartflatusflatulent
Inulin-containing foods can be rather gassy, in particular for those unaccustomed to inulin, and these foods should be consumed in moderation at first.
Flatulence-producing foods are typically high in certain polysaccharides, especially oligosaccharides such as inulin.

FODMAP

Low-FODMAP dietdiet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyolslow-FODMAP diets
Conversely, it is also considered a FODMAP, a class of carbohydrates which are rapidly fermented in the colon producing gas and drawing water into the colon.
Sources of fructans include wheat, rye, barley, onion, garlic, Jerusalem and globe artichoke, beetroot, dandelion leaves, the white part of leeks, the white part of spring onion, brussels sprouts, savoy cabbage and prebiotics such as fructooligosaccharides (FOS), oligofructose and inulin.

Fructan

fructansSources of fructans
The inulins belong to a class of dietary fibers known as fructans.
1-linked: In Inulin, the fructosyl residues are linked by β-2,1-linkages.

Yacón

yacon
Yacón (Smallanthus sonchifolius)
Their texture and flavour are very similar to jicama, mainly differing in that yacón has some slightly sweet, resinous, and floral (similar to violet) undertones to its flavour, probably due to the presence of inulin, which produces the sweet taste of the roots of elecampane, as well.

Camassia

camascamas rootCamas lilies
Camas (Camassia spp.)
A pit-cooked camas bulb looks and tastes something like baked sweet potato, but sweeter, and with more crystalline fibers due to the presence of inulin in the bulbs.

Clearance (pharmacology)

clearanceclearedelimination
This property of inulin allows the clearance of inulin to be used clinically as a highly accurate measure of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) — the rate of plasma from the afferent arteriole that is filtered into Bowman's capsule measured in ml/min.
Inulin clearance is also used to estimate glomerular filtration rate.

Elecampane

Inula helenium
He found “a peculiar substance” from Inula helenium roots by boiling-water extraction.
Besides the storage polysaccharide inulin (C 6 H 12 O 6 [C 6 H 10 O 5 ] n ), a polymer of fructose, the root contains helenin (C 15 H 20 O 2 ), a stearoptene, which may be prepared in white acicular crystals, insoluble in water, but freely soluble in alcohol.

Pachyrhizus erosus

jicamajícamaSingkamas
Jicama (Pachyrhizus erosus)
Jícama is high in carbohydrates in the form of dietary fiber (notably inulin).

List of plants used in herbalism

Plants used in herbalismaromatic and medicinal plantsMedicinal Plants
It is these secondary metabolites and pigments that can have therapeutic actions in humans and which can be refined to produce drugs—examples are inulin from the roots of dahlias, quinine from the cinchona, morphine and codeine from the poppy, and digoxin from the foxglove.

Biomarker discovery

biomarker testingseromarker discovery
An example of biomarker discovery is the use of inulin to assess kidney function.

Fructooligosaccharide

oligofructosefructooligosaccharidesFOS
Two different classes of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) mixtures are produced commercially, based on inulin degradation or transfructosylation processes.

University of Birmingham

BirminghamBirmingham UniversityThe University of Birmingham
His research helped to define the basic features of the starch, cellulose, glycogen, inulin and xylan molecules.

Clostridium

Clostridialclostridia Clostridium symbiosum
Fructooligosaccharides (fructans) such as inulin, occurring in relatively large amounts in a number of foods such as chicory, garlic, onion, leek, artichoke, and asparagus, have a prebiotic or bifidogenic effect, selectively promoting the growth and metabolism of beneficial bacteria in the colon, such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, while inhibiting harmful ones, such as clostridia, fusobacteria, and bacteroides.

Carbohydrate

carbohydratessaccharidecomplex carbohydrates
Other polysaccharides contained in dietary fiber include resistant starch and inulin, which feed some bacteria in the microbiota of the large intestine, and are metabolized by these bacteria to yield short-chain fatty acids.

Fructolysis

fructose metabolismfructose metabolism in liver cells
Fructose is a dietary monosaccharide present naturally in fruits and vegetables, either as free fructose or as part of the disaccharide sucrose, and as its polymer inulin.

Pharmacognosy

pharmacognosistpharmacognocistpharmacognostic
It is these secondary metabolites and pigments that can have therapeutic actions in humans and which can be refined to produce drugs—examples are inulin from the roots of dahlias, quinine from the cinchona, THC and CBD from the flowers of cannabis, morphine and codeine from the poppy, and digoxin from the foxglove.