Inventory

inventoriesstock in tradestockinventoriedinventory managementstocksDistressed inventorycycle stocksdeath inventorydistress
Inventory (American English) or stock (British English) is the goods and materials that a business holds for the ultimate goal of resale (or repair).wikipedia
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Business

for-profitenterprisefirm
Inventory (American English) or stock (British English) is the goods and materials that a business holds for the ultimate goal of resale (or repair).

ABC analysis

It also may include ABC analysis, lot tracking, cycle counting support, etc. Management of the inventories, with the primary objective of determining/controlling stock levels within the physical distribution system, functions to balance the need for product availability against the need for minimizing stock holding and handling costs.
In materials management, the ABC analysis is an inventory categorization technique.

Inventory valuation

Beginning Inventory
An inventory valuation allows a company to provide a monetary value for items that make up their inventory.

Petrolsoft Corporation

This application for motor fuel was first developed and implemented by Petrolsoft Corporation in 1990 for Chevron Products Company.
The software solution to this problem became Petrolsoft's initial product, based on inventory proportionality.

Finished good

finished goodsgoodsfinished products
Manufacturing has three classes of inventory:

Retail

retailerretailingretail store
Retailers' inventory may exist in a warehouse or in a shop or store accessible to customers.

FIFO and LIFO accounting

FIFOfirst in first outFIFO and LIFO
FIFO and LIFO accounting are methods used in managing inventory and financial matters involving the amount of money a company has to have tied up within inventory of produced goods, raw materials, parts, components, or feedstocks.

Lower of cost or market

Lower of cost or market (LCM or LOCOM) is a conservative approach to valuing and reporting inventory.

Ending inventory

Ending inventory is the amount of inventory a company has in stock at the end of its fiscal year.

Theory of constraints

constraintsConstraint ManagementPOOGI
A discussion of inventory from standard and Theory of Constraints-based (throughput) cost accounting perspective follows some examples and a discussion of inventory from a financial accounting perspective.
The underlying premise of the theory of constraints is that organizations can be measured and controlled by variations on three measures: throughput, operational expense, and inventory.

Purchasing

purchaseacquisitionpurchased
This value was manifested in lower inventories, less personnel, and getting the end product to the consumer quicker.

Carrying cost

holding cost
Such holding costs can mount up: between a third and a half of its acquisition value per year.
In marketing, carrying cost, carrying cost of inventory or holding cost refers to the total cost of holding inventory.

Asset

assetstotal assetstangible asset
An organization's inventory can appear a mixed blessing, since it counts as an asset on the balance sheet, but it also ties up money that could serve for other purposes and requires additional expense for its protection.
Current assets include inventory, while fixed assets include such items as buildings and equipment.

Warehouse

warehousingwarehousesgodown
Manufacturers', distributors', and wholesalers' inventory tends to cluster in warehouses.
Logistics personnel use the WMS to improve warehouse efficiency by directing pathways and to maintain accurate inventory by recording warehouse transactions.

Balance sheet

statement of financial positionbalance sheetsbalance-sheet
An organization's inventory can appear a mixed blessing, since it counts as an asset on the balance sheet, but it also ties up money that could serve for other purposes and requires additional expense for its protection.
A small business balance sheet lists current assets such as cash, accounts receivable, and inventory, fixed assets such as land, buildings, and equipment, intangible assets such as patents, and liabilities such as accounts payable, accrued expenses, and long-term debt.

Cost of goods sold

production costproduction costsCost of sales
When a merchant buys goods from inventory, the value of the inventory account is reduced by the cost of goods sold (COGS).

Working capital

capitalWorking capital analysiscapitalized
This effort, known as "Lean production" will significantly reduce working capital tied up in inventory and reduce manufacturing costs (See the Toyota Production System).
The policies aim at managing the current assets (generally cash and cash equivalents, inventories and debtors) and the short-term financing, such that cash flows and returns are acceptable.

Current asset

current assetscurrentfloating asset
Inventory appears as a current asset on an organization's balance sheet because the organization can, in principle, turn it into cash by selling it.
Typical current assets include cash, cash equivalents, short-term investments (marketable securities), accounts receivable, stock inventory, supplies, and the portion of prepaid liabilities (sometimes referred to as prepaid expenses) which will be paid within a year.

Average cost method

Weighted Average CostMoving-Average Costaccounting on average cost basis

Inventory management software

inventory managementinventory management systemsCloud Inventory & Order Management
Inventory management software is a software system for tracking inventory levels, orders, sales and deliveries.

Throughput (business)

throughputProduction ratethrough-put
He offers a substitute, called throughput accounting, that uses throughput (money for goods sold to customers) in place of output (goods produced that may sell or may boost inventory) and considers labor as a fixed rather than as a variable cost.
Output that becomes part of the inventory in a warehouse may mislead investors or others about the organizations condition by inflating the apparent value of its assets.

Inventory investment

inventory accumulationinventory cycleInventory investment over the business cycle
Some short-term macroeconomic fluctuations are attributed to the inventory cycle.
Thus, if production per unit time exceeds sales per unit time, then inventory investment per unit time is positive; as a result, at the end of that period of time the stock of inventories on hand will be greater than it was at the beginning.

Throughput accounting

throughput
He offers a substitute, called throughput accounting, that uses throughput (money for goods sold to customers) in place of output (goods produced that may sell or may boost inventory) and considers labor as a fixed rather than as a variable cost.
Throughput Accounting improves profit performance with better management decisions by using measurements that more closely reflect the effect of decisions on three critical monetary variables (throughput, investment (AKA inventory), and operating expense — defined below).

Consignment stock

consignment
To account for a replenishment of consignment stock at a customer site, a manufacturer must credit inventory and debit customer consignment stock.