Inverted question and exclamation marks

¡¿inverted exclamation markInverted question markinverted exclamation pointinverted markinverted question mark and exclamation pointSpanish inverted marksSpanish-style inverted question marks¡, ¿
Inverted question mark and exclamation mark (Commonwealth English) or exclamation point (American English) are punctuation marks used to begin interrogative and exclamatory sentences (or clauses), respectively, in written Spanish and sometimes also in languages which have cultural ties with the Spanish, such as in the Galician and the Waray languages.wikipedia
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Question mark

????Greek question mark
The inverted question mark is a punctuation mark written before the first letter of an interrogative sentence or clause to indicate that a question follows.
An interrogative sentence, clause, or phrase begins with an inverted question mark and ends with the question mark, as in:

Spanish language

SpanishSpanish-languageCastilian
Inverted question mark and exclamation mark (Commonwealth English) or exclamation point (American English) are punctuation marks used to begin interrogative and exclamatory sentences (or clauses), respectively, in written Spanish and sometimes also in languages which have cultural ties with the Spanish, such as in the Galician and the Waray languages.
Interrogative and exclamatory clauses are introduced with inverted question and exclamation marks (¿ and ¡, respectively).

Galician language

GalicianGalegoGalician speaking
Inverted question mark and exclamation mark (Commonwealth English) or exclamation point (American English) are punctuation marks used to begin interrogative and exclamatory sentences (or clauses), respectively, in written Spanish and sometimes also in languages which have cultural ties with the Spanish, such as in the Galician and the Waray languages. This is the criterion in Galician and Catalan.
The last review of the official grammar has established that the exclamation and question marks will appear only at the end of the sentence if there is no risk of confusion, thus deprecating the general use of Spanish-like inverted question and exclamation marks.

Exclamation mark

exclamation point!exclamation marks
It is acceptable in Spanish to begin a sentence with an opening inverted exclamation mark and end it with a question mark, or vice versa, for statements that are questions but also have a clear sense of exclamation or surprise such as: ¡Y tú quién te crees?
In Spanish, a sentence or clause ending in an exclamation mark must also begin with an inverted exclamation mark (the same also applies to the question mark): ¿Estás loco?

Irony punctuation

irony markAlcanter de Brahmpercontation point
In 1668, John Wilkins proposed using the inverted exclamation mark "¡" as a symbol at the end of a sentence to denote irony.
In 1668, John Wilkins, in An Essay towards a Real Character and a Philosophical Language, proposed using an inverted exclamation mark to punctuate ironic statements.

Spanish orthography

Spanish alphabetSpanishabecedario
Notable features of Spanish punctuation include the lack of the serial comma and the inverted question and exclamation marks:.

Interrobang

interobangInterröbanginverted version of the interrobang
Unicode 5.1 also includes, which is an inverted version of the interrobang (also known as a "gnaborretni" (/ŋˌnɑ.bɔɹˈɛt.ni/)), a nonstandard punctuation mark used to denote both excitement and a question in just one glyph.
A reverse and upside down interrobang (combining ¿ and ¡, Unicode character: ⸘), suitable for starting phrases in Spanish, Galician and Asturian, which use inverted question and exclamation marks, is called an "inverted interrobang" or a gnaborretni (interrobang written backwards).

Compose key

Compose key sequence Compose compose
On the X Window system (which the vast majority of GNU/Linux desktop systems with graphical interface use), they can be entered using the standard Compose key mechanism as and, respectively.

English in the Commonwealth of Nations

Commonwealth EnglishCommonwealthCommonwealth Nations
Inverted question mark and exclamation mark (Commonwealth English) or exclamation point (American English) are punctuation marks used to begin interrogative and exclamatory sentences (or clauses), respectively, in written Spanish and sometimes also in languages which have cultural ties with the Spanish, such as in the Galician and the Waray languages.

American English

EnglishAmericanEnglish-language
Inverted question mark and exclamation mark (Commonwealth English) or exclamation point (American English) are punctuation marks used to begin interrogative and exclamatory sentences (or clauses), respectively, in written Spanish and sometimes also in languages which have cultural ties with the Spanish, such as in the Galician and the Waray languages.

Punctuation

punctuation markpunctuation marksFrench
The inverted question mark is a punctuation mark written before the first letter of an interrogative sentence or clause to indicate that a question follows. Inverted question mark and exclamation mark (Commonwealth English) or exclamation point (American English) are punctuation marks used to begin interrogative and exclamatory sentences (or clauses), respectively, in written Spanish and sometimes also in languages which have cultural ties with the Spanish, such as in the Galician and the Waray languages.

Waray language

WarayWaray-WarayWaray-Waray language
Inverted question mark and exclamation mark (Commonwealth English) or exclamation point (American English) are punctuation marks used to begin interrogative and exclamatory sentences (or clauses), respectively, in written Spanish and sometimes also in languages which have cultural ties with the Spanish, such as in the Galician and the Waray languages.

Baseline (typography)

baselinebase linebaselines
Unlike the ending marks, which are printed along the baseline of a sentence, the inverted marks (¿ and ¡) descend below the line.

Descender

descendersBeard linedescend below the line
Unlike the ending marks, which are printed along the baseline of a sentence, the inverted marks (¿ and ¡) descend below the line.

Royal Spanish Academy

Real Academia EspañolaSpanish Royal AcademySpanish Academy
Inverted marks were originally recommended by the Real Academia Española (Royal Spanish Academy) in 1754, and adopted gradually over the next century.

ISO/IEC 8859-1

ISO 8859-1ISO-8859-1Latin-1
On computers, inverted marks are supported by various standards, including ISO-8859-1, Unicode, and HTML.

Unicode

Unicode StandardUnicode Transformation FormatThe Unicode Standard
Unicode 5.1 also includes, which is an inverted version of the interrobang (also known as a "gnaborretni" (/ŋˌnɑ.bɔɹˈɛt.ni/)), a nonstandard punctuation mark used to denote both excitement and a question in just one glyph. On computers, inverted marks are supported by various standards, including ISO-8859-1, Unicode, and HTML.

SGML entity

entityentitiesHTML
On computers, inverted marks are supported by various standards, including ISO-8859-1, Unicode, and HTML.

Latin alphabet

LatinRoman alphabetRoman
recognized by speakers of languages written with the Latin alphabet.

Yes–no question

yes-no questionyes/no questionpolar question
(There is not always a difference between the wording of a yes–no question and the corresponding statement in Spanish.) These new rules were slowly adopted; there exist 19th-century books in which the writer uses neither "¡" nor "¿".

Catalan language

CatalanCatalan-languageca
This is the criterion in Galician and Catalan.

Joan Solà i Cortassa

Certain Catalan-language authorities, such as Joan Solà i Cortassa, insist that both the opening and closing question marks be used for clarity.

Pablo Neruda

NerudaP NerudaPablo '''Neruda
Some Spanish-language writers, among them Nobel laureate Pablo Neruda (1904–1973), refuse to use the inverted question mark.

John Wilkins

WilkinsWilkinBishop Wilkins
In 1668, John Wilkins proposed using the inverted exclamation mark "¡" as a symbol at the end of a sentence to denote irony.

Erasmus

Desiderius ErasmusErasmus of RotterdamErasmian
He was one of many, including Desiderius Erasmus, who felt there was a need for such a punctuation mark, but Wilkins' proposal, as was true of the other attempts, failed to take hold.