Ion

cationanionionscationsanionsanioniccationicdianionchargenonionic
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a net electrical charge.wikipedia
3,012 Related Articles

Molecule

molecularmoleculesmolecular structure
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a net electrical charge.
Molecules are distinguished from ions by their lack of electrical charge.

Atom

atomsatomic structureatomic
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a net electrical charge.
These atoms are called ions.

Ionic compound

ionicionic solidionic crystals
Because of their opposite electric charges, cations and anions attract each other and readily form ionic compounds.
In chemistry, an ionic compound is a chemical compound composed of ions held together by electrostatic forces termed ionic bonding.

Monatomic ion

monatomiccopper type IImonatomic cation
Ions consisting of only a single atom are termed atomic or monatomic ions, while two or more atoms form molecular ions or polyatomic ions.
A monatomic ion is an ion consisting of exactly one atom.

Polyatomic ion

molecular ionpolyatomicpolyatomic anion
Ions consisting of only a single atom are termed atomic or monatomic ions, while two or more atoms form molecular ions or polyatomic ions.
A polyatomic ion, also known as a molecular ion, is a charged chemical species (ion) composed of two or more atoms covalently bonded or of a metal complex that can be considered to be acting as a single unit.

Salt (chemistry)

saltsaltspotassium salt
Ions are also created by chemical interactions, such as the dissolution of a salt in liquids, or by other means, such as passing a direct current through a conducting solution, dissolving an anode via ionization.
In chemistry, a salt is a solid chemical compound consisting of an ionic assembly of cations and anions.

Ionization

ionizedionizeionisation
Ions are also created by chemical interactions, such as the dissolution of a salt in liquids, or by other means, such as passing a direct current through a conducting solution, dissolving an anode via ionization.
Ionization or ionisation, is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons, often in conjunction with other chemical changes.The resulting electrically charged atom or molecule is called an ion.

Electron

electronse − electron mass
Since the charge of the electron (considered negative by convention) is equal and opposite to that of the proton (considered positive by convention), the net charge of an ion is non-zero due to its total number of electrons being unequal to its total number of protons.
After studying the phenomenon of electrolysis in 1874, Irish physicist George Johnstone Stoney suggested that there existed a "single definite quantity of electricity", the charge of a monovalent ion.

Michael Faraday

FaradayFaraday, MichaelM. Faraday
This term was introduced (after a suggestion by William Whewell ) by English physicist and chemist Michael Faraday in 1834 for the then-unknown species that goes from one electrode to the other through an aqueous medium.
As a chemist, Faraday discovered benzene, investigated the clathrate hydrate of chlorine, invented an early form of the Bunsen burner and the system of oxidation numbers, and popularised terminology such as "anode", "cathode", "electrode" and "ion".

Cathode

cathodiccopper cathode Indirectly Heated Cathode
In correspondence with Faraday, Whewell also coined the words anode and cathode, as well as anion and cation as ions that are attracted to the respective electrodes.
Positively charged cations always move towards the anode and negatively charged anions move towards the cathode (same as the electrons), although cathode polarity depends on the device type, and can even vary according to the operating mode.

Ionic radius

ionic radiiionicradius
Cations and anions are measured by their ionic radius and they differ in relative size: "Cations are small, most of them less than 10 −10 m (10 −8 cm) in radius. But most anions are large, as is the most common Earth anion, oxygen. From this fact it is apparent that most of the space of a crystal is occupied by the anion and that the cations fit into the spaces between them."
Ionic radius, r ion, is the radius of an atom's ion in ionic crystals structure.

Crystal

crystallinecrystalscrystalline solid
Cations and anions are measured by their ionic radius and they differ in relative size: "Cations are small, most of them less than 10 −10 m (10 −8 cm) in radius. But most anions are large, as is the most common Earth anion, oxygen. From this fact it is apparent that most of the space of a crystal is occupied by the anion and that the cations fit into the spaces between them."
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.

Dication

dicationsdivalentDivalent metal
For example, an ion with a −2 charge is known as a dianion and an ion with a +2 charge is known as a dication.
A dication is any cation, of general formula X 2+, formed by the removal of two electrons from a neutral species.

Electric charge

chargeelectrical chargecharged
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a net electrical charge.
An ion is an atom (or group of atoms) that has lost one or more electrons, giving it a net positive charge (cation), or that has gained one or more electrons, giving it a net negative charge (anion).

Ion source

Electron Beam Ion Sourceplasma desorption mass spectrometryAtmospheric pressure ionization
Ions can be non-chemically prepared using various ion sources, usually involving high voltage or temperature.
An ion source is a device that creates atomic and molecular ions.

Mass spectrometry

mass spectrometerMSmass spectrometric
These are used in a multitude of devices such as mass spectrometers, optical emission spectrometers, particle accelerators, ion implanters, and ion engines.
Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that measures the mass-to-charge ratio of ions.

William Whewell

WhewellDr. WhewellMr W. Whewell
This term was introduced (after a suggestion by William Whewell ) by English physicist and chemist Michael Faraday in 1834 for the then-unknown species that goes from one electrode to the other through an aqueous medium.
Whewell contributed the terms scientist, physicist, linguistics, consilience, catastrophism, uniformitarianism, and astigmatism amongst others; Whewell suggested the terms electrode, ion, dielectric, anode, and cathode to Michael Faraday.

Ion implantation

ion implantersimplantedion implanter
These are used in a multitude of devices such as mass spectrometers, optical emission spectrometers, particle accelerators, ion implanters, and ion engines.
Ion implantation is a low-temperature process by which ions of one element are accelerated into a solid target, thereby changing the physical, chemical, or electrical properties of the target.

Ion thruster

ion engineion propulsionion drive
These are used in a multitude of devices such as mass spectrometers, optical emission spectrometers, particle accelerators, ion implanters, and ion engines.
It creates thrust by accelerating ions using electricity.

Dissociation (chemistry)

dissociationdissociatedissociates
Svante Arrhenius put forth, in his 1884 dissertation, his explanation of the fact that solid crystalline salts dissociate into paired charged particles when dissolved, for which he would win the 1903 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
For instance, when an acid dissolves in water, a covalent bond between an electronegative atom and a hydrogen atom is broken by heterolytic fission, which gives a proton (H + ) and a negative ion.

Svante Arrhenius

Svante August ArrheniusArrheniusArrhenius, Svante August
Svante Arrhenius put forth, in his 1884 dissertation, his explanation of the fact that solid crystalline salts dissociate into paired charged particles when dissolved, for which he would win the 1903 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Arrhenius's explanation was that in forming a solution, the salt disassociates into charged particles, to which Michael Faraday had given the name ions many years earlier.

Adenosine triphosphate

ATPadenosine triphosphate (ATP)adenosine 5'-triphosphate
In both inorganic and organic chemistry (including biochemistry), the interaction of water and ions is extremely important; an example is energy that drives the breakdown of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
The binding of a divalent cation, almost always magnesium, strongly affects the interaction of ATP with various proteins.

Ion channel

ion channelschannelchannels
This is a common mechanism exploited by natural and artificial biocides, including the ion channels gramicidin and amphotericin (a fungicide).
Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins that allow ions to pass through the channel pore.

Cell membrane

plasma membranemembranecell membranes
As signalling and metabolism in organisms are controlled by a precise ionic gradient across membranes, the disruption of this gradient contributes to cell death.
In this way, it is selectively permeable to ions and organic molecules. In addition, cell membranes are involved in a variety of cellular processes such as cell adhesion, ion conductivity and cell signalling and serve as the attachment surface for several extracellular structures, including the cell wall, the carbohydrate layer called the glycocalyx, and the intracellular network of protein fibers called the cytoskeleton.

Total dissolved solids

dissolved solidsTDSphosphorus
Inorganic dissolved ions are a component of total dissolved solids, a widely-known indicator of water quality.
Total dissolved solids (TDS) is a measure of the dissolved combined content of all inorganic and organic substances present in a liquid in molecular, ionized, or micro-granular (colloidal sol) suspended form.