Ionic compound

ionicionic solidionic crystalsIonic compoundssaltionic salt compoundsionic structures
In chemistry, an ionic compound is a chemical compound composed of ions held together by electrostatic forces termed ionic bonding.wikipedia
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Sodium chloride

NaClsaltroad salt
These can be simple ions such as the sodium (Na + ) and chloride (Cl − ) in sodium chloride, or polyatomic species such as the ammonium and carbonate ions in ammonium carbonate.
Sodium chloride, commonly known as salt (though sea salt also contains other chemical salts), is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.

Ion

cationanionions
In chemistry, an ionic compound is a chemical compound composed of ions held together by electrostatic forces termed ionic bonding.
Because of their opposite electric charges, cations and anions attract each other and readily form ionic compounds.

Hydroxide

OHhydroxide ionOH −
Ionic compounds containing hydrogen ions (H + ) are classified as acids, and those containing basic ions hydroxide (OH − ) or oxide (O 2− ) are classified as bases.
Many inorganic substances which bear the word "hydroxide" in their names are not ionic compounds of the hydroxide ion, but covalent compounds which contain hydroxy groups.

Chemistry

chemistchemicalApplied Chemistry
In chemistry, an ionic compound is a chemical compound composed of ions held together by electrostatic forces termed ionic bonding.
These other types of substances, such as ionic compounds and network solids, are organized in such a way as to lack the existence of identifiable molecules per se.

Sodium

NaNa + sodium ion
These can be simple ions such as the sodium (Na + ) and chloride (Cl − ) in sodium chloride, or polyatomic species such as the ammonium and carbonate ions in ammonium carbonate.
As a result, sodium usually forms ionic compounds involving the Na + cation.

Chemical compound

compoundcompoundschemical compounds
In chemistry, an ionic compound is a chemical compound composed of ions held together by electrostatic forces termed ionic bonding.

Max Born

BornBorn, M.Born M
Principal contributors to the development of a theoretical treatment of ionic crystal structures were Max Born, Fritz Haber, Alfred Landé, Erwin Madelung, Paul Peter Ewald, and Kazimierz Fajans.
A chance meeting with Fritz Haber in Berlin in 1918 led to discussion of the manner in which an ionic compound is formed when a metal reacts with a halogen, which is today known as the Born–Haber cycle.

Oxide

oxidesmetal oxideO
Ionic compounds containing hydrogen ions (H + ) are classified as acids, and those containing basic ions hydroxide (OH − ) or oxide (O 2− ) are classified as bases.
It is the conjugate base of the hydroxide ion, OH − and is encountered in ionic solids such as calcium oxide.

Born–Haber cycle

Born-Haber cycle
In some reactions between highly reactive metals (usually from Group 1 or Group 2) and highly electronegative halogen gases, or water, the atoms can be ionized by electron transfer, a process thermodynamically understood using the Born–Haber cycle.
The cycle is concerned with the formation of an ionic compound from the reaction of a metal (often a Group I or Group II element) with a halogen or other non-metallic element such as oxygen.

Born–Landé equation

Born-Landé equation
When a reasonable form is assumed for the additional repulsive energy, the total lattice energy can be modelled using the Born–Landé equation, the Born–Mayer equation, or in the absence of structural information, the Kapustinskii equation.
The Born–Landé equation is a mean of calculating the lattice energy of a crystalline ionic compound.

Madelung constant

So for each possible crystal structure, the total electrostatic energy can be related to the electrostatic energy of unit charges at the nearest neighbour distance by a multiplicative constant called the Madelung constant that can be efficiently computed using an Ewald sum.
Because the anions and cations in an ionic solid are attracting each other by virtue of their opposing charges, separating the ions requires a certain amount of energy.

Pauling's rules

Pauling’s
Depending on the stoichiometry of the ionic compound, and the coordination (principally determined by the radius ratio) of cations and anions, a variety of structures are commonly observed, and theoretically rationalized by Pauling's rules.
Pauling's rules are five rules published by Linus Pauling in 1929 for predicting and rationalizing the crystal structures of ionic compounds.

Born–Mayer equation

When a reasonable form is assumed for the additional repulsive energy, the total lattice energy can be modelled using the Born–Landé equation, the Born–Mayer equation, or in the absence of structural information, the Kapustinskii equation.
The Born–Mayer equation is an equation that is used to calculate the lattice energy of a crystalline ionic compound.

Schottky defect

Schottky defects consist of one vacancy of each type, and are generated at the surfaces of a crystal, occurring most commonly in compounds with a high coordination number and when the anions and cations are of similar size.
In ionic crystals, this point defect forms when oppositely charged ions leave their lattice sites, creating vacancies.

Lattice energy

lattice energieslattice enthalpylattice forces
Ions typically pack into extremely regular crystalline structures, in an arrangement that minimizes the lattice energy (maximizing attractions and minimizing repulsions).
The lattice energy for ionic crystals such as sodium chloride, metals such as iron, or covalently linked materials such as diamond is considerably greater in magnitude than for solids such as sugar or iodine, whose neutral molecules interact only by weaker dipole-dipole or van der Waals forces.

Acid salt

acid nitratesacidic saltsalt
If the compound is the result of a reaction between a strong acid and a weak base, the result is an acidic salt.
Acid salt is an ionic compound consisted of an anion, contributed from a weak parent acid, and a cation, contributed from a strong parent base.

Salt (chemistry)

saltsaltspotassium salt
Ionic compounds without these ions are also known as salts and can be formed by acid–base reactions.
These ionic compounds dissociate completely in water.

Ionic liquid

ionic liquidsMagnetic ionic liquidroom temperature ionic liquid
Some substances with larger ions, however, have a melting point below or near room temperature (often defined as up to 100 °C), and are termed ionic liquids. The solubility is highest in polar solvents (such as water) or ionic liquids, but tends to be low in nonpolar solvents (such as petrol/gasoline).
Conversely, when an ionic liquid is cooled, it often forms an ionic solid—which may be either crystalline or glassy.

Solvent

solventsorganic solventorganic solvents
Ionic compounds can also be produced from their constituent ions by evaporation of their solvent, precipitation, freezing, a solid-state reaction, or the electron transfer reaction of reactive metals with reactive non-metals, such as halogen gases. The solubility is highest in polar solvents (such as water) or ionic liquids, but tends to be low in nonpolar solvents (such as petrol/gasoline).
Generally, the dielectric constant of a solvent is an acceptable predictor of the solvent's ability to dissolve common ionic compounds, such as salts.

Solubility

solubleinsolublewater-soluble
The solubility is highest in polar solvents (such as water) or ionic liquids, but tends to be low in nonpolar solvents (such as petrol/gasoline).
In even more simple terms a simple ionic compound (with positive and negative ions) such as sodium chloride (common salt) is easily soluble in a highly polar solvent (with some separation of positive (δ+) and negative (δ-) charges in the covalent molecule) such as water, as thus the sea is salty as it accumulates dissolved salts since early geological ages.

Ionic bonding

ionicionic bondionic bonds
In chemistry, an ionic compound is a chemical compound composed of ions held together by electrostatic forces termed ionic bonding.
Ionic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions, and is the primary interaction occurring in ionic compounds.

Salt

table saltsalt productioncommon salt
Humans have processed common salt (sodium chloride) for over 8000 years, using it first as a food seasoning and preservative, and now also in manufacturing, agriculture, water conditioning, for de-icing roads, and many other uses.
Salt is mostly sodium chloride, the ionic compound with the formula NaCl, representing equal proportions of sodium and chlorine.

Formula unit

For example, FeSO 4 is named iron(2+) sulfate (with the 2+ charge on the Fe 2+ ions balancing the 2− charge on the sulfate ion), whereas Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 is named iron(3+) sulfate (because the two iron ions in each formula unit each have a charge of 3+, to balance the 2− on each of the three sulfate ions).
A formula unit in chemistry is the empirical formula of any ionic or covalent network solid compound used as an independent entity for stoichiometric calculations.

Electrolysis

electrolyticelectrolyzedelectrolyzer
To obtain the elemental materials, these ores are processed by smelting or electrolysis, in which redox reactions occur (often with a reducing agent such as carbon) such that the metal ions gain electrons to become neutral atoms.

Ioliomics

These differences, in turn, lead to dramatically different behavior of covalent and ionic compounds both in the solution and solid phase.