Ionic compound

ionicionic solidionic crystalsIonic compoundssaltionic salt compoundsionic structures
In chemistry, an ionic compound is a chemical compound composed of ions held together by electrostatic forces termed ionic bonding.wikipedia
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Empirical formula

empiricalchemical componentsformula
To obtain the empirical formula from these names, the stoichiometry can be deduced from the charges on the ions, and the requirement of overall charge neutrality.
It is standard for many ionic compounds, like calcium chloride (CaCl 2 ), and for macromolecules, such as silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ).

Bonding in solids

directional bondingforces between particles
A standard ionic solid consists of atoms held together by ionic bonds, that is by the electrostatic attraction of opposite charges (the result of transferring electrons from atoms with lower electronegativity to atoms with higher electronegativity).

Monatomic ion

monatomiccopper type IImonatomic cation
These can be simple ions such as the sodium (Na + ) and chloride (Cl − ) in sodium chloride, or polyatomic species such as the ammonium and carbonate ions in ammonium carbonate.

Chloride

Cl − chloridesCl
These can be simple ions such as the sodium (Na + ) and chloride (Cl − ) in sodium chloride, or polyatomic species such as the ammonium and carbonate ions in ammonium carbonate.

Polyatomic ion

molecular ionpolyatomicpolyatomic anion
These can be simple ions such as the sodium (Na + ) and chloride (Cl − ) in sodium chloride, or polyatomic species such as the ammonium and carbonate ions in ammonium carbonate.

Ammonium

ammonium saltammonium ionNH 4 +
These can be simple ions such as the sodium (Na + ) and chloride (Cl − ) in sodium chloride, or polyatomic species such as the ammonium and carbonate ions in ammonium carbonate.

Carbonate

carbonatescarbonaceousCO 3
These can be simple ions such as the sodium (Na + ) and chloride (Cl − ) in sodium chloride, or polyatomic species such as the ammonium and carbonate ions in ammonium carbonate.

Ammonium carbonate

(NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 ammoniumbaker's ammonia
These can be simple ions such as the sodium (Na + ) and chloride (Cl − ) in sodium chloride, or polyatomic species such as the ammonium and carbonate ions in ammonium carbonate.

Crystal structure

unit celllatticecrystal lattice
Individual ions within an ionic compound usually have multiple nearest neighbours, so are not considered to be part of molecules, but instead part of a continuous three-dimensional network, usually in a crystalline structure.

Hydrogen ion

H + Hhydrogen ions
Ionic compounds containing hydrogen ions (H + ) are classified as acids, and those containing basic ions hydroxide (OH − ) or oxide (O 2− ) are classified as bases.

Acid

acidicacidityacids
Ionic compounds containing hydrogen ions (H + ) are classified as acids, and those containing basic ions hydroxide (OH − ) or oxide (O 2− ) are classified as bases.

Acid–base reaction

acid-base reactionacid-baseacid-base chemistry
Ionic compounds without these ions are also known as salts and can be formed by acid–base reactions.

Evaporation

evaporateevaporatedevaporates
Ionic compounds can also be produced from their constituent ions by evaporation of their solvent, precipitation, freezing, a solid-state reaction, or the electron transfer reaction of reactive metals with reactive non-metals, such as halogen gases.

Precipitation (chemistry)

precipitateprecipitationprecipitates
Ionic compounds can also be produced from their constituent ions by evaporation of their solvent, precipitation, freezing, a solid-state reaction, or the electron transfer reaction of reactive metals with reactive non-metals, such as halogen gases.

Freezing

solidificationfrozenfreeze
Ionic compounds can also be produced from their constituent ions by evaporation of their solvent, precipitation, freezing, a solid-state reaction, or the electron transfer reaction of reactive metals with reactive non-metals, such as halogen gases.

Solid-state reaction route

solid statesolid-state reaction
Ionic compounds can also be produced from their constituent ions by evaporation of their solvent, precipitation, freezing, a solid-state reaction, or the electron transfer reaction of reactive metals with reactive non-metals, such as halogen gases.

Electron transfer

electron-transfertransferelectron
Ionic compounds can also be produced from their constituent ions by evaporation of their solvent, precipitation, freezing, a solid-state reaction, or the electron transfer reaction of reactive metals with reactive non-metals, such as halogen gases.

Reactivity series

reactivereactive elementleast reactive metal
Ionic compounds can also be produced from their constituent ions by evaporation of their solvent, precipitation, freezing, a solid-state reaction, or the electron transfer reaction of reactive metals with reactive non-metals, such as halogen gases.

Halogen

halogensgroup 1717
Ionic compounds can also be produced from their constituent ions by evaporation of their solvent, precipitation, freezing, a solid-state reaction, or the electron transfer reaction of reactive metals with reactive non-metals, such as halogen gases.

Boiling point

normal boiling pointboiling pointssaturation temperature
Ionic compounds typically have high melting and boiling points, and are hard and brittle.

Hardness

hardhardersoft
Ionic compounds typically have high melting and boiling points, and are hard and brittle.

Insulator (electricity)

insulatorinsulatorsinsulation
As solids they are almost always electrically insulating, but when melted or dissolved they become highly conductive, because the ions are mobilized.

Melting

moltenmeltmelted
As solids they are almost always electrically insulating, but when melted or dissolved they become highly conductive, because the ions are mobilized.

Michael Faraday

FaradayFaraday, MichaelM. Faraday
This term was introduced by English physicist and chemist Michael Faraday in 1834 for the then-unknown species that goes from one electrode to the other through an aqueous medium.

Electrode

electrodescathodemicroelectrode
This term was introduced by English physicist and chemist Michael Faraday in 1834 for the then-unknown species that goes from one electrode to the other through an aqueous medium.