Ionic compound

ionicionic solidionic crystalsIonic compoundssaltionic salt compoundsionic structures
In chemistry, an ionic compound is a chemical compound composed of ions held together by electrostatic forces termed ionic bonding.wikipedia
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William Henry Bragg

William BraggSir William BraggSir William Henry Bragg
In 1913 the crystal structure of sodium chloride was determined by William Henry Bragg and William Lawrence Bragg.

Lawrence Bragg

William Lawrence BraggBraggSir Lawrence Bragg
In 1913 the crystal structure of sodium chloride was determined by William Henry Bragg and William Lawrence Bragg.

Coordination number

coordinationcoordinatedhexacoordinate
This revealed that there were six equidistant nearest-neighbours for each atom, demonstrating that the constituents were not arranged in molecules or finite aggregates, but instead as a network with long-range crystalline order.

Atom

atomsatomic structureatomic
These compounds were soon described as being constituted of ions rather than neutral atoms, but proof of this hypothesis was not found until the mid-1920s, when X-ray reflection experiments (which detect the density of electrons), were performed.

X-ray reflectivity

X-ray reflectometryGrazing incidence X-ray reflectivityreflection
These compounds were soon described as being constituted of ions rather than neutral atoms, but proof of this hypothesis was not found until the mid-1920s, when X-ray reflection experiments (which detect the density of electrons), were performed.

Fritz Haber

HaberF. HaberHaber, Fritz
Principal contributors to the development of a theoretical treatment of ionic crystal structures were Max Born, Fritz Haber, Alfred Landé, Erwin Madelung, Paul Peter Ewald, and Kazimierz Fajans.

Alfred Landé

LandéLandé, A.
Principal contributors to the development of a theoretical treatment of ionic crystal structures were Max Born, Fritz Haber, Alfred Landé, Erwin Madelung, Paul Peter Ewald, and Kazimierz Fajans.

Erwin Madelung

Madelung
Principal contributors to the development of a theoretical treatment of ionic crystal structures were Max Born, Fritz Haber, Alfred Landé, Erwin Madelung, Paul Peter Ewald, and Kazimierz Fajans.

Paul Peter Ewald

P. P. EwaldPaul P. EwaldEwald
Principal contributors to the development of a theoretical treatment of ionic crystal structures were Max Born, Fritz Haber, Alfred Landé, Erwin Madelung, Paul Peter Ewald, and Kazimierz Fajans.

Kazimierz Fajans

Kasimir FajansK. Fajans
Principal contributors to the development of a theoretical treatment of ionic crystal structures were Max Born, Fritz Haber, Alfred Landé, Erwin Madelung, Paul Peter Ewald, and Kazimierz Fajans.

Thermochemistry

thermochemicalHistory of thermochemistrythermodynamic
Born predicted crystal energies based on the assumption of ionic constituents, which showed good correspondence to thermochemical measurements, further supporting the assumption.

Alkali metal

alkali metalsalkaligroup 1
Reactive metals such as the alkali metals can react directly with the highly electronegative halogen gases to form an ionic product. In some reactions between highly reactive metals (usually from Group 1 or Group 2) and highly electronegative halogen gases, or water, the atoms can be ionized by electron transfer, a process thermodynamically understood using the Born–Haber cycle.

Electrolyte

electrolyteselectrolyticionic solution
If the ionic compound is soluble in a solvent, it can be obtained as a solid compound by evaporating the solvent from this electrolyte solution.

Solution

solutesolutessolutions
If the ionic compound is soluble in a solvent, it can be obtained as a solid compound by evaporating the solvent from this electrolyte solution.

Nucleation

nucleatenucleatingnucleated
As the solvent is evaporated, the ions do not go into the vapour, but stay in the remaining solution, and when they become sufficiently concentrated, nucleation occurs, and they crystallize into an ionic compound.

Evaporite

evaporitesevaporiticevaporite deposits
This process occurs widely in nature, and is the means of formation of the evaporite minerals.

Supersaturation

supersaturatedsupersaturateoversaturated
Another method of recovering the compound from solution involves saturating a solution at high temperature and then reducing the solubility by reducing the temperature until the solution is supersaturated and the solid compound nucleates.

Counterion

counter ioncounter-ioncounter-ions
Because all solutions are electrically neutral, the two solutions mixed must also contain counterions of the opposite charges.

Neutralization (chemistry)

neutralizationneutralizeneutralized
If the two solutions have hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions as the counterions, they will react with one another in what is called an acid–base reaction or a neutralization reaction to form water.

Spectator ion

Spectator ions
Alternately the counterions can be chosen to ensure that even when combined into a single solution they will remain soluble as spectator ions.

Water of crystallization

hydrateshydratehydrated
If the solvent is water in either the evaporation or precipitation method of formation, in many cases the ionic crystal formed also includes water of crystallization, so the product is known as a hydrate, and can have very different chemical properties.

Hydrate

hydrousdihydratemonohydrate
If the solvent is water in either the evaporation or precipitation method of formation, in many cases the ionic crystal formed also includes water of crystallization, so the product is known as a hydrate, and can have very different chemical properties.

Melting point

freezing pointmelting temperaturemelting
Ionic compounds typically have high melting and boiling points, and are hard and brittle.

Solid-state chemistry

solid state chemistrysolid statesolid-state
This is sometimes used for the solid-state synthesis of complex ionic compounds from solid reactants, which are first melted together.

Alkaline earth metal

alkaline earthalkaline earth metalsgroup 2
In some reactions between highly reactive metals (usually from Group 1 or Group 2) and highly electronegative halogen gases, or water, the atoms can be ionized by electron transfer, a process thermodynamically understood using the Born–Haber cycle.