Ionic compound

ionicionic solidionic crystalsIonic compoundssaltionic salt compoundsionic structures
In chemistry, an ionic compound is a chemical compound composed of ions held together by electrostatic forces termed ionic bonding.wikipedia
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Frenkel defect

Frenkel pairdefectFrenkel disorder
Frenkel defects consist of a cation vacancy paired with a cation interstitial and can be generated anywhere in the bulk of the crystal, occurring most commonly in compounds with a low coordination number and cations that are much smaller than the anions.

Non-stoichiometric compound

non-stoichiometricnonstoichiometricnonstoichiometric compound
If the cations have multiple possible oxidation states, then it is possible for cation vacancies to compensate for electron deficiencies on cation sites with higher oxidation numbers, resulting in a non-stoichiometric compound.

F-center

color centerscolor centerF-centers
Another non-stoichiometric possibility is the formation of an F-center, a free electron occupying an anion vacancy.

Thermodynamic equilibrium

equilibriumequilibrium statelocal thermodynamic equilibrium
All of these point defects can be generated via thermal vibrations and have an equilibrium concentration.

Ionic conductivity (solid state)

ionic conductivityion conductivityionically conducting
This defect mobility is the source of most transport phenomena within an ionic crystal, including diffusion and solid state ionic conductivity.

Lattice constant

lattice parameterLattice parameterslattice spacing
Defects in the crystal structure generally expand the lattice parameters, reducing the overall density of the crystal.

Crystal field theory

crystal fieldcrystal field stabilization energycrystal field splitting
Defects also result in ions in distinctly different local environments, which causes them to experience a different crystal-field symmetry, especially in the case of different cations exchanging lattice sites.

Spectrochemical series

crystal-field splitting parameterligand field parametersligand field splitting
This results in a different splitting of d-electron orbitals, so that the optical absorption (and hence colour) can change with defect concentration.

Atomic orbital

orbitalatomic orbitalselectron cloud
This results in a different splitting of d-electron orbitals, so that the optical absorption (and hence colour) can change with defect concentration.

Electronegativity

electronegativeelectropositiveelectronegativities
Reactive metals such as the alkali metals can react directly with the highly electronegative halogen gases to form an ionic product.

Weak base

weakweak chemical basesweakly basic
If the compound is the result of a reaction between a strong acid and a weak base, the result is an acidic salt.

Base (chemistry)

basebasicbases
If it is the result of a reaction between a strong base and a weak acid, the result is a basic salt.

Acid strength

weak acidstrong acidstrong acids
If the compound is the result of a reaction between a strong acid and a weak base, the result is an acidic salt. If it is the result of a reaction between a strong base and a weak acid, the result is a basic salt.

Alkali salt

Alkaline saltsbasic saltAlkali salts
If it is the result of a reaction between a strong base and a weak acid, the result is a basic salt.

Conjugate acid

conjugate baseconjugateconjugate bases
Weak acids reacted with weak bases can produce ionic compounds with both the conjugate base ion and conjugate acid ion, such as ammonium acetate.

Ammonium acetate

E264
Weak acids reacted with weak bases can produce ionic compounds with both the conjugate base ion and conjugate acid ion, such as ammonium acetate.

Amphoterism

amphotericamphiproticampholyte
Some ions are classed as amphoteric, being able to react with either an acid or a base.

Zinc oxide

ZnOzinc whiteChinese white
This is also true of some compounds with ionic character, typically oxides or hydroxides of less-electropositive metals (so the compound also has significant covalent character), such as zinc oxide, aluminium hydroxide, aluminium oxide and lead(II) oxide.

Aluminium hydroxide

aluminum hydroxideAl(OH) 3 algeldrate
This is also true of some compounds with ionic character, typically oxides or hydroxides of less-electropositive metals (so the compound also has significant covalent character), such as zinc oxide, aluminium hydroxide, aluminium oxide and lead(II) oxide.

Aluminium oxide

aluminaaluminum oxideAl 2 O 3
This is also true of some compounds with ionic character, typically oxides or hydroxides of less-electropositive metals (so the compound also has significant covalent character), such as zinc oxide, aluminium hydroxide, aluminium oxide and lead(II) oxide.

Lead(II) oxide

lead oxidePbOlead monoxide
This is also true of some compounds with ionic character, typically oxides or hydroxides of less-electropositive metals (so the compound also has significant covalent character), such as zinc oxide, aluminium hydroxide, aluminium oxide and lead(II) oxide.

Vapor pressure

vapour pressuresaturation vapor pressureequilibrium vapor pressure
In such cases, the compounds generally have very high melting and boiling points and a low vapour pressure.