Ionic order

IonicIonic columnsIonic columnIonic capitalsIonic capitalIonianIonic styleGreek IonicIonic architectureIonic pilasters
The Ionic order forms one of the three classical orders of classical architecture, the other two canonic orders being the Doric and the Corinthian.wikipedia
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Classical order

classical ordersordersarchitectural order
The Ionic order forms one of the three classical orders of classical architecture, the other two canonic orders being the Doric and the Corinthian.
The three orders of architecture—the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian—originated in Greece.

Doric order

DoricDoric columnsDoric column
The Ionic order forms one of the three classical orders of classical architecture, the other two canonic orders being the Doric and the Corinthian.
The Doric order was one of the three orders of ancient Greek and later Roman architecture; the other two canonical orders were the Ionic and the Corinthian.

Corinthian order

CorinthianCorinthian columnsCorinthian column
The Ionic order forms one of the three classical orders of classical architecture, the other two canonic orders being the Doric and the Corinthian.
The other two are the Doric order which was the earliest, followed by the Ionic order.

Composite order

CompositeComposite columnsComposite capital
There are two lesser orders: the Tuscan (a plainer Doric), and the rich variant of Corinthian called the composite order, both added by 16th-century Italian architectural writers, based on Roman practice.
The composite order is a mixed order, combining the volutes of the Ionic order capital with the acanthus leaves of the Corinthian order.

Volute

volutesscrollvoluting
The Ionic capital is characterized by the use of volutes. The major features of the Ionic order are the volutes of its capital, which have been the subject of much theoretical and practical discourse, based on a brief and obscure passage in Vitruvius.
A volute is a spiral, scroll-like ornament that forms the basis of the Ionic order, found in the capital of the Ionic column.

Tuscan order

TuscanTuscan columnTuscan columns
There are two lesser orders: the Tuscan (a plainer Doric), and the rich variant of Corinthian called the composite order, both added by 16th-century Italian architectural writers, based on Roman practice.
While relatively simple columns with round capitals had been part of the vernacular architecture of Italy and much of Europe since at least Etruscan architecture, the Romans did not consider this style to be a distinct architectural order (for example, the Roman architect Vitruvius did not include it alongside his descriptions of the Greek Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian orders).

Capital (architecture)

capitalscapitalcolumn capitals
The major features of the Ionic order are the volutes of its capital, which have been the subject of much theoretical and practical discourse, based on a brief and obscure passage in Vitruvius. The ionic anta capitals as can be seen in the Ionic-order temple of the Erechtheion (circa 410 BCE), are characteristically rectangular Ionic anta capitals, with extensive bands of floral patterns in prolongation of adjoining friezes.
The capital may be convex, as in the Doric order; concave, as in the inverted bell of the Corinthian order; or scrolling out, as in the Ionic order.

Greek Revival architecture

Greek RevivalGreek Revival styleGreek Revival architectural style
The 16th-century Renaissance architect and theorist Vincenzo Scamozzi designed a version of such a perfectly four-sided Ionic capital that it became standard; when a Greek Ionic order was eventually reintroduced in the later 18th century Greek Revival, it conveyed an air of archaic freshness and primitive, perhaps even republican, vitality.
With a newfound access to Greece, or initially the books produced by the few who had actually been able to visit the sites, archaeologist-architects of the period studied the Doric and Ionic orders.

Vitruvius

Marcus Vitruvius PollioVitruvianVitruv
The major features of the Ionic order are the volutes of its capital, which have been the subject of much theoretical and practical discourse, based on a brief and obscure passage in Vitruvius. Since Vitruvius, a female character has been ascribed to the Ionic (in contrast to the masculine Doric).
When perfecting this art of building, the Greeks invented the architectural orders: Doric, Ionic and Corinthian.

Column

columnspillarpillars
The Ionic columns normally stand on a base which separates the shaft of the column from the stylobate or platform; the cap is usually enriched with egg-and-dart.
Ionic capitals feature a pair of volutes, or scrolls, while Corinthian capitals are decorated with reliefs in the form of acanthus leaves.

Frieze

pulvinated friezefriezes[f]rieze
The entablature resting on the columns has three parts: a plain architrave divided into two, or more generally three, bands, with a frieze resting on it that may be richly sculptural, and a cornice built up with dentils (like the closely spaced ends of joists), with a corona ("crown") and cyma ("ogee") molding to support the projecting roof. The ionic anta capitals as can be seen in the Ionic-order temple of the Erechtheion (circa 410 BCE), are characteristically rectangular Ionic anta capitals, with extensive bands of floral patterns in prolongation of adjoining friezes.
In architecture, the frieze is the wide central section part of an entablature and may be plain in the Ionic or Doric order, or decorated with bas-reliefs.

Fluting (architecture)

flutedunflutedfluting
Ionic columns are most often fluted.
Ionic, Corinthian, and Composite columns traditionally have 24.

Banqueting House, Whitehall

Banqueting HouseBanqueting House at WhitehallBanketinghouse
English architect Inigo Jones introduced a note of sobriety with plain Ionic columns on his Banqueting House at Whitehall Palace, London, and when Beaux-Arts architect John Russell Pope wanted to convey the manly stamina combined with intellect of Theodore Roosevelt, he left colossal Ionic columns unfluted on the Roosevelt memorial at the American Museum of Natural History, New York City, for an unusual impression of strength and stature.
On the street façade, the engaged columns, of the Corinthian and Ionic orders, the former above the latter, stand atop a high, rusticated basement and divide the seven bays of windows.

Egg-and-dart

egg and dartegg and tongueegg-and-dart molding
The Ionic columns normally stand on a base which separates the shaft of the column from the stylobate or platform; the cap is usually enriched with egg-and-dart. The ionic anta capital, in contrast to the regular column capitals, is highly decorated and generally includes bands of alternating lotuses and flame palmettes, and bands of eggs and darts and beads and reels patterns, in order to maintain continuity with the decorative frieze lining the top of the walls.
Egg-and-dart enrichment of the ovolo molding of the Ionic capital is found in ancient Greek architecture at the Erechtheion and was used by the Romans.

Ancient Greek temple

Greek templetempletemples
The Ionic anta capital is the ionic version of the anta capital, the crowning portion of an anta, which is the front edge of a supporting wall in Greek temple architecture.
Whereas the distinction was originally between the Doric and Ionic orders, a third alternative arose in late 3rd century BCE with the Corinthian order.

Castle Coole

Below the volutes, the Ionic column may have a wide collar or banding separating the capital from the fluted shaft (as in, for example, the neoclassical mansion Castle Coole), or a swag of fruit and flowers may swing from the clefts or "neck" formed by the volutes.
An Ionic portico and flanking Doric colonnaded wings extend either end of the main block of the house.

Heraion of Samos

Heraiontemple of HeraHera on the Isle of Samos
The first of the great Ionic temples was the Temple of Hera on Samos, built about 570–560 BC by the architect Rhoikos.
The late Archaic temple in the sanctuary was the first of the gigantic free-standing Ionic temples, but its predecessors at this site reached back to the Geometric Period of the 8th century BC, or earlier.

Anta capital

anta
The Ionic anta capital is the ionic version of the anta capital, the crowning portion of an anta, which is the front edge of a supporting wall in Greek temple architecture.
The Ionic anta capital is very different in that it is very rich in moldings.

Entablature

entablaturestrabeation
The entablature resting on the columns has three parts: a plain architrave divided into two, or more generally three, bands, with a frieze resting on it that may be richly sculptural, and a cornice built up with dentils (like the closely spaced ends of joists), with a corona ("crown") and cyma ("ogee") molding to support the projecting roof.
The Ionic order of entablature adds the fascia in the architrave, which are flat horizontal protrusions, and the dentils under the cornice, which are tooth-like rectangular block moldings.

Samos

Samos IslandSamianSamians
The first of the great Ionic temples was the Temple of Hera on Samos, built about 570–560 BC by the architect Rhoikos.
Its most famous building was the Ionic order archaic Temple of goddess Hera—the Heraion.

Jandial

Jandial temple
Following the conquests of Alexander the Great in the east, a few examples of the Ionic order can be found as far as Pakistan with the Jandial temple near Taxila.
Jandial near the city of Taxila in Pakistan is the site of an ancient temple well known for its Ionic columns.

Flame palmette

The ionic anta capital, in contrast to the regular column capitals, is highly decorated and generally includes bands of alternating lotuses and flame palmettes, and bands of eggs and darts and beads and reels patterns, in order to maintain continuity with the decorative frieze lining the top of the walls.
They are also extensively used at the 3rd century BCE Ionic Temple of Didyma.

Architrave

architravesepistylearchitraved
The entablature resting on the columns has three parts: a plain architrave divided into two, or more generally three, bands, with a frieze resting on it that may be richly sculptural, and a cornice built up with dentils (like the closely spaced ends of joists), with a corona ("crown") and cyma ("ogee") molding to support the projecting roof.
In the Doric and composite, it has two faces, or fasciae; and three in the Ionic and Corinthian, in which it is 10/12 of a module high, though but half a module in the rest.

Erechtheion

ErechtheumErechtheisErechteum
The ionic anta capitals as can be seen in the Ionic-order temple of the Erechtheion (circa 410 BCE), are characteristically rectangular Ionic anta capitals, with extensive bands of floral patterns in prolongation of adjoining friezes.
The main structure consists of up to four compartments, the largest being the east cella, with an Ionic portico on its east end.

Parthenon

Temple of AthenaThe Parthenon5th-century BC Athenian temple
The Parthenon, although it conforms mainly to the Doric order, also has some Ionic elements.
The Parthenon is a peripteral octastyle Doric temple with Ionic architectural features.