Iran

🇮🇷PersiaIranianPersianIslamic Republic of IranPersia (Qajar dynasty)IRNthe Islamic Republic of IranIslamic RepublicPersians
Iran, also called Persia and officially known as the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia.wikipedia
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Azerbaijan

🇦🇿Republic of AzerbaijanAzerbaijani
Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq.
It is bounded by the Caspian Sea to the east, Russia to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia to the west and Iran to the south.

Armenia

🇦🇲ArmenianARM
Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq.
Located in Western Asia on the Armenian Highlands, it is bordered by Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh and Azerbaijan to the east, and Iran and Azerbaijan's exclave of Nakhchivan to the south.

Afghanistan

🇦🇫AfghanAfghans
Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq.
Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan in the south and east; Iran in the west; Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan in the north; and in the far northeast, China.

Iraq

🇮🇶IraqiRepublic of Iraq
Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq.
Iraq (, or ; العراق '; عێراق '), officially known as the Republic of Iraq, is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.

Tehran

Tehran, IranTeheranTehrān
Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center.
Tehran is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.

Turkmenistan

🇹🇲TurkmenTurkmenia
Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq.
Turkmenistan ( or ; Türkmenistan, ), formerly known as Turkmenia, officially the Republic of Turkmenistan, is a country in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.

Pakistan

🇵🇰PakistaniPAK
Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq.
Pakistan has a {{convert|1,046|km|mi|adj=mid|abbr=off}} coastline along the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, and China in the far northeast.

Turkey

🇹🇷TurkishTUR
Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq.
Turkey is bordered by Greece and Bulgaria to its northwest; Georgia to its northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the south.

Elam

ElamiteSusianaElamite Empire
Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE.
Elam (Elamite: haltamti, Sumerian: NIM.MA ki ) was an ancient Pre-Iranian civilization centered in the far west and southwest of what is now modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of what is now Khuzestan and Ilam Province as well as a small part of southern Iraq.

Sasanian Empire

SasanianSassanidPersian
An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr, or Iran, in Middle Persian), was the last kingdom of the Persian Empire before the rise of Islam.

Caspian Sea

CaspianCaspian regionCaspian Basin
Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq.
It is bounded by Kazakhstan to the northeast, Russia to the northwest, Azerbaijan to the west, Iran to the south, and Turkmenistan to the southeast.

Parthian Empire

ParthianParthiansArsacid
An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries.
Its latter name comes from Arsaces I of Parthia who, as leader of the Parni tribe, founded it in the mid-3rd century BC when he conquered the region of Parthia in Iran's northeast, then a satrapy (province) under Andragoras, in rebellion against the Seleucid Empire.

Persian Gulf

GulfGulf regionArabian Gulf
Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq.
The body of water is an extension of the Indian Ocean (Gulf of Oman) through the Strait of Hormuz and lies between Iran to the northeast and the Arabian Peninsula to the southwest.

Safavid conversion of Iran to Shia Islam

adoption imposedattempts to convertconversion of Iran to Shiism
The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history.
The Safavid conversion of Iran from Sunni Islam to Shia Islam took place roughly over the 16th through 18th centuries and made Iran the spiritual bastion of Shia Islam.

Alexander the Great

AlexanderAlexander of MacedonAlexander III
The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states.
Alexander was awarded the generalship of Greece and used this authority to launch his father's pan-Hellenic project to lead the Greeks in the conquest of Persia.

1953 Iranian coup d'état

coup d'état1953 coupcoup
A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing Western political influence.
The 1953 Iranian coup d'état, known in Iran as the 28 Mordad coup d'état, was the overthrow of Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh in favour of strengthening the monarchical rule of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi on 19 August 1953, orchestrated by the United Kingdom (under the name "Operation Boot") and the United States (under the name TPAJAX Project or "Operation Ajax"), and the first United States covert action to overthrow a foreign government during peacetime.

Nader Shah

NaderNadir ShahNader Shah Afshar
Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses.
Nader Shah Afshar (also known as Nader Qoli Beyg نادر قلی بیگ or Tahmāsp Qoli Khan تهماسپ قلی خان) (August 1688 – 19 June 1747) was one of the most powerful Iranian rulers in the history of the nation, ruling as Shah of Iran (Persia) from 1736 to 1747 when he was assassinated during a rebellion.

Strait of Hormuz

HormuzHormuz StraitHormouz
The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance.
On the north coast lies Iran, and on the south coast the United Arab Emirates and Musandam, an exclave of Oman.

Iran–Iraq War

Iran-Iraq Warwarwar with Iraq
During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost eight years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides.
The Iran–Iraq War was an armed conflict between Iran and Iraq, beginning on 22 September 1980, when Iraq invaded Iran, and ending on 20 August 1988, when Iran accepted the UN-brokered ceasefire.

Ilkhanate

IlkhanidIlkhanMongol
After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Seljuq Turks and the Ilkhanate Mongols.
The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate (, Ilxānān; Хүлэгийн улс, Hu’legīn Uls), was established as a khanate that formed the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire, ruled by the Mongol House of Hulagu. It was founded in the 13th century and was based primarily in Iran as well as neighboring territories, such as present-day Azerbaijan and the central and eastern parts of present-day Turkey.

OPEC

Organization of the Petroleum Exporting CountriesOrganization of Petroleum Exporting CountriesOrganization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
The sovereign state of Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC.
The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC, ) is an intergovernmental organisation of nations, founded in 1960 in Baghdad by the first five members (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela), and headquartered since 1965 in Vienna, Austria.

Achaemenid Empire

PersianPersian EmpireAchaemenid
It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history.
The empire also set the tone for the politics, heritage and history of Iran (also officially known as Persia).

Demographics of Iran

IranianIranIranians
Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iran's population increased dramatically during the later half of the 20th century, reaching about 80 million by 2016.

Azerbaijanis

AzerbaijaniAzeriAzeris
Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Azerbaijanis or Azeris (Azərbaycanlılar آذربایجانلیلار, Azərilər آذریلر), also known as Azerbaijani Turks (Azərbaycan türkləri آذربایجان تورکلری), are a Turkic people living mainly in the Iranian region of Azerbaijan and the sovereign (former Soviet) Republic of Azerbaijan.

Kurds

KurdishKurdKurdish people
Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Geographically, those four adjacent and often-mountainous areas include southeastern Turkey, northwestern Iran, northern Iraq, and northern Syria.