Iran–Iraq War

Iran-Iraq warTanker WarIraq-Iran Warwarwar with IraqIran Iraq warwar with IranImposed Warinvasion of IranIran–Iraq
The Iran–Iraq War began on 22 September 1980, when Iraq invaded Iran, and it ended on 20 August 1988, when Iran accepted the UN-brokered ceasefire.wikipedia
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Persian Gulf

GulfGulf regionPersian Gulf region
Iraq wanted to replace Iran as the dominant Persian Gulf state, and was worried the 1979 Iranian Revolution would lead Iraq's Shi'ite majority to rebel against the Ba'athist government. The 1974-75 Shatt al-Arab clashes refer to Iranian-Iraqi standoff in the Persian Gulf region of Shatt al-Arab waterway during the mid-1970s.
The Persian Gulf was a battlefield of the 1980–1988 Iran–Iraq War, in which each side attacked the other's oil tankers.

Ba'ath Party (Iraqi-dominated faction)

Ba'ath PartyArab Socialist Ba'ath PartyIraqi-led Ba'ath Party
Iraq wanted to replace Iran as the dominant Persian Gulf state, and was worried the 1979 Iranian Revolution would lead Iraq's Shi'ite majority to rebel against the Ba'athist government.
Both Ba'ath parties retained the same name and maintained parallel structures in the Arab world, but became so antagonistic that Syria—led by its Ba'ath Party—became the only Arab state to support Iran against Iraq during the bloody Iran–Iraq War.

Consolidation of the Iranian Revolution

aftermathdomestic violencepost-revolutionary chaos
Although Iraq hoped to take advantage of Iran's post-revolutionary chaos, it made limited progress and was quickly repelled; Iran regained virtually all lost territory by June 1982.
Elements that played a part in both the crisis and its end were the Iran hostage crisis, the invasion of Iran by Saddam Hussein's Iraq, and the presidency of Abolhassan Banisadr.

Khuzestan Province

KhuzestanKhuzistanKhūzestān Province
The war also followed a long history of border disputes, and Iraq planned to annex the oil-rich Khuzestan Province and the east bank of the Arvand Rud (Shatt al-Arab).
In 1980, the region was invaded by Ba'athist Iraq, leading to the Iran–Iraq War.

Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force

Iranian Air ForceAir ForceIRIAF
The only qualms the Iraqis had were over the Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force (formerly the Imperial Iranian Air Force). The Iraqi Air Force launched surprise air strikes on ten Iranian airfields with the objective of destroying the Iranian Air Force.
The British publishing company Orbis' Warplane partwork magazine seems to indicate the renaming did not actually take place until after the Iran–Iraq War had broken out.

Iran hostage crisis

Iranian hostage crisishostage crisisAmerican hostages
They were also active after the failed U.S. attempt to rescue its hostages, Operation Eagle Claw.
In September 1980 the Iraqi military invaded Iran, beginning the Iran–Iraq War.

Ruhollah Khomeini

Ayatollah KhomeiniKhomeiniAyatollah Ruhollah Khomeini
When informed of this plot, Saddam ordered the execution of dozens of his army's officers, and in a sign of reconciliation, expelled from Iraq Ruhollah Khomeini, an exiled leader of clerical opposition to the Shah.
Khomeini has been criticized for these acts and for human rights violations of Iranians (including his ordering of execution of thousands of political prisoners, war criminals and prisoners of the Iran–Iraq War).

Saddam Hussein

SaddamSadam HusseinSadaam Hussein
Saddam Hussein claimed that the Islamic Republic of Iran refused to abide by the stipulations of the Algiers Protocol and, therefore, Iraq considered the Protocol null and void.
In the early 1970s, Saddam nationalized oil and foreign banks leaving the system eventually insolvent mostly due to the Iran–Iraq War, the Gulf War, and UN sanctions.

Iraqi Air Force

Royal Iraqi Air ForceAir ForceIraq Air Force
The Iraqi Air Force launched surprise air strikes on ten Iranian airfields with the objective of destroying the Iranian Air Force.
Its peak came after the long and bloody Iran–Iraq War, which ended in 1988, when it consisted of 1029 aircraft of all types (of which 550 were combat aircraft), becoming the largest air force in the region.

Ba'athist Iraq

IraqBaathist IraqIraqi
The 1974-75 Shatt al-Arab clashes refer to Iranian-Iraqi standoff in the Persian Gulf region of Shatt al-Arab waterway during the mid-1970s.
An external problem was the border conflict with Iran, which would contribute to the Iran–Iraq War.

Battle of Khorramshahr

Khorramshahrattacked the city of Khorramshahrcapture by Iraq
Two of the four Iraqi divisions, one mechanised and one armoured, operated near the southern end and began a siege of the strategically important port cities of Abadan and Khorramshahr.
The Battle of Khorramshahr was a major engagement between Iraq and Iran in the Iran–Iraq War.

Basij

BasijiBasij militiaBaseej
Another paramilitary militia was founded in response to the invasion, the "Army of 20 Million", commonly known as the Basij.
A paramilitary volunteer militia established in Iran in 1979 by order of Ayatollah Khomeini, leader of the Iranian Revolution, the organization originally consisted of civilian volunteers who were urged by Khomeini to fight in the Iran–Iraq War.

Operation Nasr

Battle of Dezfullargest tank battle of the warbiggest tank battle
For the next eight months, both sides were on a defensive footing (with the exception of the Battle of Dezful), as the Iranians needed more time to reorganise their forces after the damage inflicted by the purge of 1979–80.
Operation Nasr, fought in early January 1981, was a major battle of the Iran–Iraq War.

Operation Kaman 99

Operation ''Kaman'' 99Operation Kaman 99 (1980)
Though the Iraqi air invasion surprised the Iranians, the Iranian air force retaliated the day after with a large-scale attack against Iraqi air bases and infrastructure in Operation Kaman 99.
Operation Alborz, more commonly known by the code-name Operation Kaman 99 (عملیات کمان 99), was an operation launched by the Iranian Air Force in retaliation to Iraqi surprise aerial attacks on Iran the day before which marked the beginning of the 8-year-long Iran–Iraq War.

History of the Iranian Air Force

Imperial Iranian Air ForceIIAFIranian Air Force
The only qualms the Iraqis had were over the Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force (formerly the Imperial Iranian Air Force).
After the 1979 Iranian revolution, some of these planes were not in working order due to a lack of necessary spare parts, because of an American arms embargo and damage sustained on the aircraft during the Iraqi invasion (Iran–Iraq War).

McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II

F-4 Phantom IIF-4 PhantomF-4
Groups of F-4 Phantom and F-5 Tiger fighter jets attacked targets throughout Iraq, such as oil facilities, dams, petrochemical plants, and oil refineries, and included Mosul Airbase, Baghdad, and the Kirkuk oil refinery.
Israeli Phantoms saw extensive combat in several Arab–Israeli conflicts, while Iran used its large fleet of Phantoms, acquired before the fall of the Shah, in the Iran–Iraq War.

Modern usage of al-Qādisiyyah

alluded todubbed the war ''Saddam's Qadisiyyah
State media in Iraq dubbed the war Saddam's Qadisiyyah, in reference to the seventh-century Battle of al-Qādisiyyah, in which Arab warriors overcame the Sasanian Empire during the Muslim conquest of Iran.
In modern times, Qādisiyyah saw a revival beginning with the tensions leading up to the Iran–Iraq War.

Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps

Revolutionary GuardsIRGCRevolutionary Guard
Meanwhile, a new paramilitary organisation gained prominence in Iran, the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (often shortened to Revolutionary Guards, and known in Iran as the Sepah-e-Pasdaran).
IRGC started naval operations using mainly swarm tactics and speedboats during "Tanker War" phase of the Iran–Iraq War.

AIM-54 Phoenix

AIM-54Phoenix missilePhoenix
Meanwhile, Iraqi air attacks on Iran were repelled by Iran's F-14 Tomcat interceptor fighter jets, using Phoenix missiles, which downed a dozen of Iraq's Soviet-built fighters in the first two days of battle.
The AIM-54 is credited with 78 air-to-air kills, all scored by Iran during the long Iran–Iraq War.

M60 Patton

M60M60A1M60A3
The Iraqis lost 45 T-55 and T-62 tanks, while the Iranians lost 100–200 Chieftain and M-60 tanks.
M60s delivered to Iran also served in the Iran–Iraq War.

H-3 airstrike

Attack on H3attack on H-3 Airbasebomb the H-3 Al Walid airfield
However, on 3 April 1981, the Iranian air force used eight F-4 Phantom fighter bombers, four F-14 Tomcats, three Boeing 707 refuelling tankers, and one Boeing 747 command plane to launch a surprise attack on H3, destroying 27–50 Iraqi fighter jets and bombers.
The H-3 airstrike (Persian: عملیات اچ۳) was a surprise air attack by the Iranian Air Force during the Iran–Iraq War on 4 April 1981 against the airbases of the Iraqi Air Force at the H-3 Air Base in western Iraq.

Operation Scorch Sword

attacked by the Iranian Air Forcebombed the Osirak reactorpreviously targeted
On 30 September, Iran's air force launched Operation Scorch Sword, striking and badly damaging the nearly-complete Osirak nuclear reactor near Baghdad.
Eight days into the Iran–Iraq War, Operation Scorch Sword commenced.

Iraqi chemical attacks against Iran

Iraq chemical attacks against Iranchemical attackschemical weapon attacks
The first known chemical weapons attack by Iraq on Iran probably took place during the fighting around Susangerd.
During the early months of the Iran–Iraq War, Iraq attained successes because of Ba'ath Party interference and its attempts to improve the Iraqi Army, but the essential problem was that the military leaders did not have a clear strategy or operational aim for a war.

9th Armoured Division (Iraq)

9th Armored Division9th Armoured Division9th Division
The Revolutionary Guard and regular army followed up by surrounding the Iraqi 9th and 10th Armoured and 1st Mechanised Divisions that had camped close to the Iranian town of Shush.
Pesach Malovany says it was 'newly established' in the leadup to the Iran–Iraq War.

Kurdistan Democratic Party

KDPKurdish Democratic PartyKurdistan Democratic Party of Iraq
There were a number of proxy forces—most notably the People's Mujahedin of Iran siding with Iraq and the Iraqi Kurdish militias of the KDP and PUK siding with Iran.
At the commencement of the Iran–Iraq War, Saddam Hussein was able to publicly boast that "the Kurdish organizations would never be able to achieve anything since they are hopelessly divided against each other and subservient to foreign powers."