Iranian soldiers resisting the Iraqi invasion during the Battle of Khorramshahr, 1980
Saddam in August 1998, preparing to deliver a speech for the 10th anniversary of the end of the Iran–Iraq War
Top-left to bottom-right: Iranian child soldier on the frontlines

Iranian soldier in a trench wearing a gas mask to guard against Iraqi chemical attacks

Port quarter view of the USS Stark listing to port after being mistakenly struck by an Iraqi warplane

Pro-Iraq MEK forces killed during Iran's Operation Mersad

Iraqi prisoners of war after the recapture of Khorramshahr by Iranian forces

ZU-23-2 anti-aircraft gun being used by the Iranian Army
Mass demonstrations at College Bridge, Tehran
Iranian soldiers resisting the Iraqi invasion during the Battle of Khorramshahr, 1980
Saddam in August 1998, preparing to deliver a speech for the 10th anniversary of the end of the Iran–Iraq War
Meeting of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Houari Boumédiène and Saddam Hussein (left to right) during the Algiers Agreement in 1975.
Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi official coronation photo 1967
The Shatt al-Arab waterway on the Iran–Iraq border
Saddam in his youth as a shepherd in his village, near Tikrit
Ruhollah Khomeini rose to power after the Iranian Revolution.
Ayatollah Sayyid Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini (revolutionary leader).
Explosion in Mehrabad Air Base in Tehran after Iraqi forces attacked Tehran on 22 September, 1980
Saddam Hussein and the Ba'ath Party student cell, Cairo, in the period 1959–1963
Location of Khuzestan Province in Iran which Iraq planned to annex
People of Tehran in the demonstrations of 5 June 1963 with pictures of Ruhollah Khomeini in their hands
Destroyed Iranian C-47 Skytrain
Promoting women's literacy and education in the 1970s
Iranian President Abolhassan Banisadr, who was also commander-in-chief, on a Jeep-mounted 106mm recoilless anti-tank gun. Banisadr was impeached in June 1981.
Two armed militants outside the Embassy of the United States, Tehran where diplomats are held hostage. Behind of them is a banner written: "Long live anti-imperialism and democratic forces". Photograph by Abbas, dated 1979, from the Iran Diary series
Location of Khūzestān Province in Iran
Saddam in 1974
The Shatt al-Arab on the Iran–Iraq border
The Shah of Iran (left) meeting with members of the U.S. government: Alfred Atherton, William Sullivan, Cyrus Vance, Jimmy Carter, and Zbigniew Brzezinski, 1977
Iranian Northrop F-5 during Iran–Iraq War
Saddam talking to Michel Aflaq, the founder of Ba'athist thought, in 1988
Destroyed Iranian C-47 Skytrain
Pro-Shah demonstration organized by the Resurgence Party in Tabriz, April 1978
Ali Khamenei (right), the future Supreme Leader of Iran, in a trench during the Iran-Iraq war.
Alexei Kosygin (left) and Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr signing the Iraqi–Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Co-Operation in 1972
Iranian F-14A Tomcats equipped with AIM-54A, AIM-7 and AIM-9 missiles.
Demonstration of 8 September 1978. The placard reads, "We want an Islamic government, led by Imam Khomeini".
Propaganda art to glorify Saddam after Iran–Iraq War, 1988.
Resistance of the outnumbered and outgunned Iranians in Khorramshahr slowed the Iraqis for a month.
Demonstration of "Black Friday" (8 September 1978)
Saddam Hussein and al-Bakr, de jure president of Iraq alongside Hafez al-Assad of Syria at an Arab Summit in Baghdad in November 1978
Iranian president Abulhassan Banisadr on the battlefront
Victims of Black Friday
Saddam greeting Carlos Cardoen, a Chilean businessman who provided Iraq with weapons during the war in the 1980s
Iraqi President Saddam Hussein and Massoud Rajavi, the leader of MEK and the National Resistance Council of Iran (NCRI) in 1988.
Ayatollah Khomeini in Neauphle-le-Château surrounded by journalists
U.S. Ambassador to Iraq April Glaspie meets Saddam for an emergency meeting
The surprise attack on H-3 airbase is considered to be one of the most sophisticated air operations of the war.
Mohammad Beheshti in the Tehran Ashura demonstration, 11 December 1978
Iraqi stamp about the Arab Cooperation Council (ACC), founded 1989 by Saleh of (North) Yemen, king Hussein of Jordan, Saddam Hussein and Hosni Mubarak of Egypt
Iranian soldier holding an IV bag during the Iran–Iraq War
"The Shah is Gone" —headline of Iranian newspaper Ettela'at, 16 January 1979, when the last monarch of Iran left the country.
Saddam in duty uniform
Iranian Northrop F-5 aircraft during Iran-Iraq war
A protester giving flowers to an army officer
Saddam addresses state television, in January 2001
Iraqi T-62 tank wreckage in Khuzestan Province, Iran
Shah and his wife, Shahbanu Farah leaving Iran on 16 January 1979
Saddam Hussein in 1996
Iraqi soldiers surrendering after the Liberation of Khorramshahr
Cartoon depicting Shapour Bakhtiar and Mosaddegh on 22 January 1978 issue of Ettela'at, during the revolution
Statue of Saddam being toppled in Firdos Square after the invasion
Saddam Hussein in 1982
Iranian prime minister Mehdi Bazargan was an advocate of democracy and civil rights. He also opposed the cultural revolution and US embassy takeover.
Saddam is discovered and interrogated by American soldiers, December 2003
An admonitory declaration issued from the Iraqi government in order to warn Iranian troops in the Iran–Iraq War. The statement says: "Hey Iranians! No one has been downtrodden in the country where Ali ibn Abi Ṭālib, Husayn ibn Ali and Abbas ibn Ali are buried. Iraq has undoubtedly been an honorable country. All refugees are precious. Anyone who wants to live in exile can choose Iraq freely. We, the Sons of Iraq, have been ambushing foreign aggressors. The enemies who plan to assault Iraq will be disfavoured by God in this world and the hereafter. Be careful of attacking Iraq and Ali ibn Abi Ṭālib! If you surrender, you might be in peace."
Iranian armed rebels during the revolution
Saddam Hussein shortly after capture
95,000 Iranian child soldiers were made casualties during the Iran–Iraq War, mostly between the ages of 16 and 17, with a few younger.
Iranian women protesting
Hussein after being captured and shaven to confirm his identity
Furthest ground gains
Khomeini told questioners that "the religious dignitaries do not want to rule."
Saddam speaks in court
Iranian POWs in 1983 near Tikrit, Iraq
A revolutionary firing squad in 1979
Saddam Hussein's family, mid-late 1980s
Iranian child soldier
Executed Generals of Imperial Army: Reza Naji, Mehdi Rahimi, and Manouchehr Khosrodad
Saddam Hussein's sons Qusay and Uday were killed in a gun battle in Mosul on 22 July 2003.
Iraqi POW who was shot by Iranian troops after they conquered the Iraqi Majnoon oil field in October 1984
Kazem Shariatmadari and Khomeini
Iranian troops fire 152 mm D-20 howitzer
Banisadr in 1980
Battle of the Marshes Iran front 1983 rest after exchange of fire 152 mm D-20 H
People celebrating anniversary of the revolution in Mashhad in 2014.
Operation Earnest Will: Tanker convoy No. 12 under US Navy escort (21 October 1987)
An injured revolutionary during protests against Pahlavi regime.
A map indicating the attacks on civilian areas of Iran, Iraq, and Kuwait targeted during the "War of the Cities".
Protests in summer 1978.
Iraqi commanders discussing strategy on the battlefront (1986)
Revolutionary victims.
Iranian President Ali Khamenei on the battlefront during the Iran–Iraq War
Current Iranian leader, Ali Khamenei in a Revolutionary protest in Mashhad.
Operation Dawn 8 during which Iran captured the Faw Peninsula.
Shah visiting Bakhtiar cabinet before his exit from Iran.
Iranian soldier killed during the Iran–Iraq War with Rouhollah Khomeini's photo on his uniform
People celebrating Shah's exit from the country.
The People's Mujahedin of Iran, supported by Saddam, started a ten-day operation after both the Iranian and Iraqi governments accepted UN Resolution 598. Casualty estimates range from 2,000 to 10,000.
Removal of Shah's statue by the people in University of Tehran.
Adnan Khairallah, Iraqi Defense Minister, meeting with Iraqi soldiers during the war
Khomeini at Mehrabad Airport.
IRGC navy speedboats using swarm tactics
People accompanying Khomeini from Mehrabad to Behesht Zahra.
An Iranian soldier wearing a gas mask during the Iran–Iraq War.
Khomeini in Behesht Zahra.
The Iranian frigate IS Sahand burns after being hit by 20 U.S. air launched missiles and bombs, killing a third of the crew, April 1988
Khomeini before a speech at Alavi school.
Iranian soldiers captured during Iraq's 1988 offensives
USS Vincennes in 1987 a year before it shot down Iran Air Flight 655
MEK Soldiers killed in Operation Mersad in 1988
Al-Shaheed Monument in Baghdad was erected to commemorate the fallen Iraqi soldiers during the war.
Iranian Martyr Cemetery in Isfahan
Iranian Martyrs Museum in Tehran
An Iranian soldier's funeral in Mashhad, 2013
An Iraqi Mil Mi-24 on display at the military museum of Sa'dabad Palace in Iran
President Ronald Reagan and Vice President George H. W. Bush work in the Oval Office of the White House, 20 July 1984.
USS Stark (FFG-31) listing following two hits by Exocet missiles.
Victims of the 1987 chemical attack on Sardasht, West Azerbaijan, Iran
Damage to a mosque in Khoramshahr, Iran, the city that was invaded by Iraq in September 1980

The Iraqi invasion of Iran refers to the Iraqi military campaign against neighbouring Iran in 1980, when the Iraqi Armed Forces crossed the international border and invaded the country, sparking the protracted Iran–Iraq War.

- Iraqi invasion of Iran

The Iran–Iraq War (الحرب الإيرانية العراقية) was a protracted armed conflict that began on 22 September 1980 with a full-scale invasion of Iran by neighbouring Iraq.

- Iran–Iraq War

Contrary to Iraqi expectations of a disorganized and poor response from Iran in light of the turmoil caused by the 1979 Islamic Revolution, the invasion stalled severely in the face of fierce Iranian resistance, but not before Iraq had captured more than 15,000 km2 of Iranian territory.

- Iraqi invasion of Iran

Iraq's primary rationale for the invasion was to cripple Iran and prevent Ruhollah Khomeini from exporting the 1979 Iranian Revolution movement to Shia-majority Iraq and internally exploit religious tensions that would threaten the Sunni-dominated Ba'athist leadership led by Saddam Hussein.

- Iran–Iraq War

He suppressed several movements, particularly Shi'a and Kurdish movements which sought to overthrow the government or gain independence, respectively, and maintained power during the Iran–Iraq War and the Gulf War.

- Saddam Hussein

The invasion's purpose, per Iraqi President Saddam Hussein, was to blunt the edge of Iranian Supreme Leader Ruhollah Khomeini's movement and thwart his attempts to export Iran's Islamic Revolution to Saddam's secular Iraq and the Persian Gulf states.

- Iraqi invasion of Iran

Saddam's rule was marked by numerous human rights abuses, including an estimated 250,000 arbitrary killings and bloody invasions of neighboring Iran and Kuwait.

- Saddam Hussein

Following the Iranian Revolution of 1979, Iraq faced the prospect of régime change from two Shi'ite factions (Dawa and SCIRI) which aspired to model Iraq on its neighbour Iran as a Shia theocracy.

- Saddam Hussein

At the same time, events that made up both the crisis and its resolution were the Iran hostage crisis, the invasion of Iran by Saddam Hussein's Iraq, and the presidency of Abolhassan Banisadr.

- Iranian Revolution

In September 1980, Iraq took advantage of the febrile situation and invaded Iran.

- Iranian Revolution
Iranian soldiers resisting the Iraqi invasion during the Battle of Khorramshahr, 1980

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