A report on Iran–Iraq War and Iraqi Air Force

Top-left to bottom-right: Iranian child soldier on the frontlines

Iranian soldier in a trench wearing a gas mask to guard against Iraqi chemical attacks

Port quarter view of the USS Stark listing to port after being mistakenly struck by an Iraqi warplane

Pro-Iraq MEK forces killed during Iran's Operation Mersad

Iraqi prisoners of war after the recapture of Khorramshahr by Iranian forces

ZU-23-2 anti-aircraft gun being used by the Iranian Army
Iraqi Air Force badge
Meeting of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Houari Boumédiène and Saddam Hussein (left to right) during the Algiers Agreement in 1975.
Some Iraqi SM.79Bs
Ruhollah Khomeini rose to power after the Iranian Revolution.
An Iraqi Air Force De Havilland Vampire FB.52, before delivery in 1953
Location of Khuzestan Province in Iran which Iraq planned to annex
USS Stark listing following two hits by Iraqi Exocet missiles
Iranian President Abolhassan Banisadr, who was also commander-in-chief, on a Jeep-mounted 106mm recoilless anti-tank gun. Banisadr was impeached in June 1981.
An Iraqi MiG-29 aircraft lies in ruins after it was destroyed by coalition forces during the Persian Gulf War's Operation Desert Storm.
The Shatt al-Arab on the Iran–Iraq border
An Iraqi MiG-25 Foxbat found buried under the sand west of Baghdad.
Destroyed Iranian C-47 Skytrain
A U.S. Airman conducts post-flight checks on an IQAF C-130 Hercules.
Iranian F-14A Tomcats equipped with AIM-54A, AIM-7 and AIM-9 missiles.
An Iraqi Air Force Commander at an F-16 training session in Arizona.
Resistance of the outnumbered and outgunned Iranians in Khorramshahr slowed the Iraqis for a month.
An Iraqi Air Force T-6A Texan II
Iranian president Abulhassan Banisadr on the battlefront
Night flying certification for the UH-1 crews of the Iraqi 2nd Squadron
Iraqi President Saddam Hussein and Massoud Rajavi, the leader of MEK and the National Resistance Council of Iran (NCRI) in 1988.
Iraqi Air Force F-16 Fighting Falcon flies over an undisclosed location July 18, 2019
The surprise attack on H-3 airbase is considered to be one of the most sophisticated air operations of the war.
An Iraqi Cessna 208 on a training mission
Iranian soldier holding an IV bag during the Iran–Iraq War
Iraqi C-130 on take off
Iranian Northrop F-5 aircraft during Iran-Iraq war
Iraqi T-62 tank wreckage in Khuzestan Province, Iran
Iraqi soldiers surrendering after the Liberation of Khorramshahr
Saddam Hussein in 1982
An admonitory declaration issued from the Iraqi government in order to warn Iranian troops in the Iran–Iraq War. The statement says: "Hey Iranians! No one has been downtrodden in the country where Ali ibn Abi Ṭālib, Husayn ibn Ali and Abbas ibn Ali are buried. Iraq has undoubtedly been an honorable country. All refugees are precious. Anyone who wants to live in exile can choose Iraq freely. We, the Sons of Iraq, have been ambushing foreign aggressors. The enemies who plan to assault Iraq will be disfavoured by God in this world and the hereafter. Be careful of attacking Iraq and Ali ibn Abi Ṭālib! If you surrender, you might be in peace."
95,000 Iranian child soldiers were made casualties during the Iran–Iraq War, mostly between the ages of 16 and 17, with a few younger.
Furthest ground gains
Iranian POWs in 1983 near Tikrit, Iraq
Iranian child soldier
Iraqi POW who was shot by Iranian troops after they conquered the Iraqi Majnoon oil field in October 1984
Iranian troops fire 152 mm D-20 howitzer
Battle of the Marshes Iran front 1983 rest after exchange of fire 152 mm D-20 H
Operation Earnest Will: Tanker convoy No. 12 under US Navy escort (21 October 1987)
A map indicating the attacks on civilian areas of Iran, Iraq, and Kuwait targeted during the "War of the Cities".
Iraqi commanders discussing strategy on the battlefront (1986)
Iranian President Ali Khamenei on the battlefront during the Iran–Iraq War
Operation Dawn 8 during which Iran captured the Faw Peninsula.
Iranian soldier killed during the Iran–Iraq War with Rouhollah Khomeini's photo on his uniform
The People's Mujahedin of Iran, supported by Saddam, started a ten-day operation after both the Iranian and Iraqi governments accepted UN Resolution 598. Casualty estimates range from 2,000 to 10,000.
Adnan Khairallah, Iraqi Defense Minister, meeting with Iraqi soldiers during the war
IRGC navy speedboats using swarm tactics
An Iranian soldier wearing a gas mask during the Iran–Iraq War.
The Iranian frigate IS Sahand burns after being hit by 20 U.S. air launched missiles and bombs, killing a third of the crew, April 1988
Iranian soldiers captured during Iraq's 1988 offensives
USS Vincennes in 1987 a year before it shot down Iran Air Flight 655
MEK Soldiers killed in Operation Mersad in 1988
Al-Shaheed Monument in Baghdad was erected to commemorate the fallen Iraqi soldiers during the war.
Iranian Martyr Cemetery in Isfahan
Iranian Martyrs Museum in Tehran
An Iranian soldier's funeral in Mashhad, 2013
An Iraqi Mil Mi-24 on display at the military museum of Sa'dabad Palace in Iran
President Ronald Reagan and Vice President George H. W. Bush work in the Oval Office of the White House, 20 July 1984.
USS Stark (FFG-31) listing following two hits by Exocet missiles.
Victims of the 1987 chemical attack on Sardasht, West Azerbaijan, Iran
Damage to a mosque in Khoramshahr, Iran, the city that was invaded by Iraq in September 1980

The air force's peak came after the long Iran–Iraq War, which ended in 1988, when it consisted of 1029 aircraft of all types (of which 550 were combat aircraft), becoming the largest air force in the region.

- Iraqi Air Force

The Iraqi Air Force launched surprise air strikes on ten Iranian airfields with the objective of destroying the Iranian Air Force.

- Iran–Iraq War
Top-left to bottom-right: Iranian child soldier on the frontlines

Iranian soldier in a trench wearing a gas mask to guard against Iraqi chemical attacks

Port quarter view of the USS Stark listing to port after being mistakenly struck by an Iraqi warplane

Pro-Iraq MEK forces killed during Iran's Operation Mersad

Iraqi prisoners of war after the recapture of Khorramshahr by Iranian forces

ZU-23-2 anti-aircraft gun being used by the Iranian Army

14 related topics with Alpha

Overall

A Spanish Air Force Mirage F1M

Dassault Mirage F1

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French fighter and attack aircraft designed and manufactured by Dassault Aviation.

French fighter and attack aircraft designed and manufactured by Dassault Aviation.

A Spanish Air Force Mirage F1M
A Spanish Air Force Mirage F1M
Mirage F1 Escadron de chasse 1/5 Vendée.
Mirage F1C of EC 2/30 Normandie-Niemen at the 1975 Paris Air Show.
A pair of French Air Force Mirage F1Cs from the EC 2/30 and EC 3/30 in flight, 31 May 1986.
A multinational fighter formation, including, left to right, a Qatari F-1 Mirage, a French F-1C Mirage, a U.S. Air Force F-16C Fighting Falcon, a Canadian CF/A-18A Hornet and a Qatari Alpha Jet, during Operation Desert Shield
An Ecuadoran Mirage F1JA during the joint US/Ecuadoran exercise "Blue Horizon '86".
A Hellenic Air Force Mirage F1CG
Moroccan Mirage F1CH (2007).
A formation of four Mirage F1CZs, flying over Air Force Base Ysterplaat, circa 1982
A SAAF Mirage F1CZ performing an aerial display at Air Force Base Ysterplaat, Cape Town, circa 1982
Spanish Air Force F1M at Kecskeméti Repülőnap 2010.
A Mirage F1BD, believed to be the only twin-seat aircraft of the type remaining in Libyan service at that time, 2009
Underside view of a SAAF Mirage F1AZ flying overhead, 2002
A Mirage F1B performing a flight display at the 2008 Royal International Air Tattoo
A Spanish Mirage F1CE at RAF Coltishall, England, 1988
A Mirage F1ED of the Libyan Air Force, August 1981
A Jordanian Mirage F1EJ in formation with an American F-16 Fighting Falcon over Iraq, 1996
A formation of four Mirage F1CRs flying over Avenue des Champs-Élysées, Paris, 2006
A French Air Force Mirage F1CR at the 2009 Royal International Air Tattoo
A Mirage F1AZ at Air Force Base Swartkop, Gauteng, circa 1996
Aerosud Mirage F1
Mirage F1 operators, current (blue) and former (red)
Iranian Air Force Mirage F1BQ
Iraqi Air Force Mirage F1BQ
Jordanian Air Force Dassault Mirage F1EJ
Qatari Air Force Mirage F1EDA
Dassault Mirage F1 3-view drawings
Thomson CSF Cyrano IV radar unit
Assorted 125kg, 250kg, 500kg, and 1000kg bombs besides a Mirage F1

The type has seen action in a large number of armed conflicts involving several of its operators, including the Western Sahara War, the Paquisha War, the Cenepa War, the Iran–Iraq War, the Gulf War, the South African Border War, the War in Afghanistan, the Chadian–Libyan conflict, the 2011 military intervention in Libya, and the Northern Mali conflict.

In November 1981, an Iraqi Mirage F1 accounted for the first Iranian F-14 Tomcat to be shot down, followed by several more in the following months, giving the previously timid Iraqi Air Force new confidence in air-to-air combat engagements with the Iranians.

A Soviet Air Force MiG-23MLD

Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-23

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Variable-geometry fighter aircraft, designed by the Mikoyan-Gurevich design bureau in the Soviet Union.

Variable-geometry fighter aircraft, designed by the Mikoyan-Gurevich design bureau in the Soviet Union.

A Soviet Air Force MiG-23MLD
A Soviet Air Force MiG-23MLD
A Polish MiG-23MF
MiG-23 parked.
MiG-23M "Flogger-B" armed with R-23 and R-60 missiles.
MiG-23 cockpit in high resolution
KM-1 ejection seat
MiG-23 wing-sweep mechanism
MiG-23M
MiG-23 on display in Israel after defection from Syria
Iraqi MiG-23ML
Libyan MiG-23 over Gulf of Sidra in August 1981, being followed by an F-4 just before the first Gulf of Sidra incident.
Libyan MiG-23
A Hungarian MiG-23MF in flight.
MiG-23BN used in Operation Safed Sagar
MiG-23M "Flogger-B" on display at the National Museum of the History of Ukraine in the Second World War, Kyiv
MiG-23ML 332 at the Information Centre for History and Technology, Peenemünde
Soviet MiG-23MLA "Flogger-G"
Soviet MiG-23MLD "Flogger-K"
World operators of the MiG-23 (not including evaluation-only operators)
Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-23MS Syrian Air Force Camo
Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-23UB.
Hungarian Air Force Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-23MF.
An Indian MiG-23MF on display at a crossroads in Gandhinagar.
Polish Air Force MiG-23
Ukrainian MiG-23 on display at the National Museum of the History of Ukraine in the Second World War, Kyiv
MiG-23 on display at the Minsk World theme park in Shenzhen, PRC.
3-view drawing of MiG-23MF
MiG-23 monument

The introduction of these new aircraft proved particularly difficult for the Iraqi Air Force.

The MiG-23 took part in the Iran–Iraq War and was used in both air-to-air and air-to-ground roles.

Badge of the Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force

Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force

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Aviation branch of the Islamic Republic of Iran Army.

Aviation branch of the Islamic Republic of Iran Army.

Badge of the Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force
An IRIAF C-130 Hercules in 1988
A P-3F Orion of the Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force
An Iranian C-130 Hercules in 2010
Iran Air Forces training in Tehran, 2014
A Mirage F1BQ landing
An Su-24MK of the IRIAF flying over Shahid Dastghaib International Airport
An F-14A Tomcat of the IRIAF
A MiG-29 on the tarmac at Dezful Airport
A CH-47 Chinook
An Iranian C-130E

The IRIAF was heavily involved in the Iran–Iraq War, carrying out major operations like Operation Kaman 99, Operation Sultan 10, the H-3 airstrike, and the first attack on a nuclear reactor in history, Operation Scorch Sword.

Many aircraft belonging to the Iraqi Air Force took refuge in Iran during the Persian Gulf War in 1991, and many were put into service with the IRIAF or taken apart for spare parts.

Croatian MiG-21bis-D in flight

Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21

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Supersonic jet fighter and interceptor aircraft, designed by the Mikoyan-Gurevich Design Bureau in the Soviet Union.

Supersonic jet fighter and interceptor aircraft, designed by the Mikoyan-Gurevich Design Bureau in the Soviet Union.

Croatian MiG-21bis-D in flight
Hungarian Air Force MiG-21bis on takeoff.
Retired Finnish MiG-21bis on top of Verkkokauppa store in Helsinki (Tyynenmerenkatu 11).
MiG-21bis rear.
Close-up of the landing gear bay.
MiG-21 at Aleksotas Airport (S. Dariaus / S. Gireno), Kaunas (EYKS)
MiG-21М National People's Army of the GDR, August 1990
A pole mounted MiG-21
Czechoslovak MiG-21F-13 "Fishbed C"
Older MiG-21 cockpit
MiG-21F-13 cockpit at the Aviation Museum in Bucharest, Romania
MiG-21F-13 rear view
MiG-21 Bison of the Indian Air Force
Indonesian Air Force MiG-21 in the Yogyakarta Air Force Museum
MiG-21F-13 in Vietnam People's Air Force markings exhibited at the National Museum of the United States Air Force in Ohio.
A missile-armed VPAF MiG-21PF landing
Vietnam People's Air Force MiG-21 number 4324, flown by various pilots, was credited with 14 kills during the Vietnam War.
VPAF MiG-21 No.4326, which shot down 13 aircraft during the war
Israeli Mirage III shot down by Egyptian MiG-21 during the October War
Yugoslav air force MiG-21F-13
A Romanian Air Force MiG-21 LanceR C during a training exercise.
Bulgarian Air Force MiG-21bis
MiG-21bis Bulgarian Air Force
U.S. Air Force MiG-21 with American markings used for training of American pilots in flight
Current MiG-21 operators in blue, former operators in red, operators of captured aircraft in green.
Serbian Air Force MiG-21UM.
Croatian Air Force MiG-21UMD in unique promotional paint scheme.
Croatian MiG-21bis 1996.
Egyptian MiG-21PFM in 1982
A Bulgarian MiG-21 taxis at Graf Ignatievo Air Base, Bulgaria during a bilateral exercise between the U.S. and Bulgarian Air Force.
Bulgarian Air Force MiG-21UB
Czechoslovak Air Force MiG-21R
Two-seat Polish Air Force MiG-21UM with 3rd Tactical Squadron markings
Bangladesh Air Force two-seat MiG-21UM in BAF Museum. The aircraft was gifted by the Soviet Union in 1972
Derelict Malagasy MiG-21UMs
Slovak Air Force MiG-21MA on display in Liptovský Mikuláš, 2011.
drawing of MiG-21

The MiG-21 was also used extensively in Middle Eastern conflicts of the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s by the Egyptian Air Force, Syrian Air Force and Iraqi Air Force.

During the Iran–Iraq War, 23 Iraqi MiG-21s were shot down by Iranian F-14s, as confirmed by Iranian, Western and Iraqi sources and another 29 Iraqi MiG-21s were downed by F-4s.

Su-22M4 of the Czech Air Force

Sukhoi Su-17

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Variable-sweep wing fighter-bomber developed for the Soviet military.

Variable-sweep wing fighter-bomber developed for the Soviet military.

Su-22M4 of the Czech Air Force
Su-22M4 of the Czech Air Force
An Su-20 (left) next to an older, similar Su-7BKL.
A Soviet Su-17M.
Iraqi Su-22M aircraft in a hangar damaged by Coalition air strikes during Operation Desert Storm.
Libyan Su-22M.
Sukhoi Su-22 aircraft of the Peruvian Air Force.
Polish Su-22M4 in the markings of 7th Tactical Sqn.
Polish Su-22M4 in flight
Polish Su-22M4 in markings of 7th Tactical Sqn.
Operating nations of the Su-17, Su-20, and Su-22; current operators shaded blue, former operators shaded red
Former Libyan Arab Republic Air Force Sukhoi Su-22M
Polish Su-22M4
A former Afghan Air Force Su-22M4 that now sits as a gate guardian at the entrance of Hamid Karzai International Airport
Czech Air Force Su-22M4
Hungarian Su-22M3
Su-22UM of the Peruvian Air Force
Retired Slovak Su-22M4
Drawing of the Su-17M4 "Fitter K", with plan view of wings swept and spread
Egyptian Air Force Su-20 armed with four 250 kg bombs, two rocket pods, and fitted with two external fuel tanks.

From 22 September 1980 to 20 August 1988, during the Iran–Iraq War, Iraq used Su-17 export versions (Su-20 and Su-22) alongside older Su-7s.

🇮🇶 Iraq: Iraqi Air Force. The Iraqi Air Force received a large number of Su-22 models, of which 40 were impounded by Iran after having escaped the coalition air campaign in 1991. None survived the 2003 invasion of Iraq by the United States.

Logos of the Iraqi Armed Forces

Iraqi Armed Forces

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The Iraqi Armed Forces (القوات المسلحة العراقية romanized: Al-Quwwat Al-Musallahah Al-Iraqiyyah) are the military forces of the Republic of Iraq.

The Iraqi Armed Forces (القوات المسلحة العراقية romanized: Al-Quwwat Al-Musallahah Al-Iraqiyyah) are the military forces of the Republic of Iraq.

Logos of the Iraqi Armed Forces
The 2nd Brigade, 1st Iraqi Division took delivery of 10 armored HMMWVs
Iraqi T-72 tank fires.
Iraqi Security Force fire a howitzer at known Islamic State of Iraq and Syria locations near the Iraqi-Syrian border during Operation Roundup, June 5, 2018
Iraqi soldiers from 1st Hammurabi Armoured Division in 1982.
Iraqi commanders discussing strategy on the battlefront (1986)
An Iraqi Mil Mi-24 on display at the military museum of Kirkuk in Iraq
An Iraqi Type 69 main battle tank sits on the side on the road into Kuwait City during the ground phase of Operation Desert Storm.
Iraqi special forces soldiers with M4A1 carbines, March 2020.
Iraqi Soldiers during exercise in Babylon
Modified T-55 tank of the 5th Mechanized Division which saw action in the Battle of Khafji
A C-130 Hercules of the Iraqi Air Force
Iraqi F-16D landing at Tucson International Airport
Iraqi Coastal Defense Force (ICDF) Patrol.

They consist of the Iraqi Army, the Iraqi Air Force, and the Iraqi Navy.

A much larger conflict was the Iran–Iraq War, initiated by the Iraqis in 1980, which continued until 1988.

A Super Étendard at RIAT in 2005.

Dassault-Breguet Super Étendard

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French carrier-borne strike fighter aircraft designed by Dassault-Breguet for service with the French Navy.

French carrier-borne strike fighter aircraft designed by Dassault-Breguet for service with the French Navy.

A Super Étendard at RIAT in 2005.
A Super Étendard at RIAT in 2005.
Underside of a Super Étendard in-flight. The protruding tail hook is towards the rear of the fuselage
During the 1982 Falklands War, the Argentine Super Étendards were used as a launch platform for Exocet anti-ship missiles
A formation of Super Étendards in flight, one of which is refueling another Super Étendard, through "buddy-to-buddy" refueling process.
Launch from Charles de Gaulle
Dassault Super Étendard, Iraqi Air Force, 1983
Argentine Navy's Super Étendard
Orthographically projected diagram of the Dassault-Breguet Super Étendard
DEFA 552 cannons on display

The Super Étendard was used by Iraq to attack oil tankers and merchant shipping in the Persian Gulf during the Iraq-Iran War.

Iraqi Air Force was loaned five French aircraft between 1983 and 1985; one was lost during the Iran–Iraq War, the remainder returned to France in 1985.

AM39 under a Dassault Rafale

Exocet

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French-built anti-ship missile whose various versions can be launched from surface vessels, submarines, helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft.

French-built anti-ship missile whose various versions can be launched from surface vessels, submarines, helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft.

AM39 under a Dassault Rafale
AM39 under a Dassault Rafale
Exocet missile launch
Exocet impact
MM38 onboard German Navy Type 143A Nerz
Sue 204 (Dassault-Breguet Super Étendard) of Argentina's 2nd Navy Squadron, used in the Atlantic Conveyor attack
Stark listing after being hit
Map with Exocet operators in blue and former operators in red

During the Iran–Iraq War, on 17 May 1987, an Iraqi aircraft identified as a Dassault Mirage F1 fired two Exocet missiles at the American frigate USS Stark (FFG-31).

Iraqi Air Force – operated the Exocet on its Mirage F1s and Super Étendards during the Iran–Iraq War.

Iraq

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Country in Western Asia.

Country in Western Asia.

Inside the Shanidar Cave, where the remains of eight adults and two infant Neanderthals, dating from around 65,000–35,000 years ago were found.
Map of the Akkadian Empire and the directions in which military campaigns were conducted (yellow arrows). The Akkadian Empire was the first ancient empire of Mesopotamia after the long-lived civilization of Sumer
Bronze head of an Akkadian ruler from Nineveh, presumably depicting either Sargon of Akkad, or Sargon's grandson Naram-Sin
Hammurabi, depicted as receiving his royal insignia from Shamash. Relief on the upper part of the stele of Hammurabi's code of laws.
Map of the Neo-Assyrian Empire under Shalmaneser III (dark green) and Esarhaddon (light green)
Jehu, king of Israel, bows before Shalmaneser III of Assyria, 825 BC.
Lamassu from the Assyrian gallery at the Iraq Museum, Baghdad
The Neo-Babylonian Empire under Nabonidus (r. 626–539 BC)
A partial view of the ruins of Babylon.
Roman amphitheater in Sulaymaniyah.
Al-Hariri of Basra was a poet, high government official and scholar of the Arabic language, He is known for his Maqamat al-Hariri (‘'Assemblies of Hariri'’), a collection of some 50 stories written in the Maqama style. Al-Hariri's best known work, Maqamat has been regarded as the greatest treasure in Arabic literature.
The siege of Baghdad by the Mongols.
Conquest of Mosul (Nineveh) by Mustafa Pasha in 1631, a Turkish soldier in the foreground holding a severed head. L., C. (Stecher) 1631 -1650
Crowning of King Faisal II of Iraq in the Council of Representatives, 1953
Nuri Said (1888 - 1958), contributed to the establishment of the Kingdom of Iraq and the armed forces while also served as the Prime minister of the state.
Iraq state emblem under nationalist Qasim was mostly based on Mesopotamian symbol of Shamash, and avoided pan-Arab symbolism by incorporating elements of Socialist heraldry.
The April 2003 toppling of Saddam Hussein's statue by US Army troops in Firdos Square in Baghdad shortly after the US-led invasion.
Destroyed Lion of Babylon tank on Highway 9 outside Najaf during US-led invasion in 2003.
An Iraqi Army Aviation Command aerial gunner prepares to test fire his M240 machine gun, Near Baghdad International Airport, 2011
Combined Air and Space Operations Center (CAOC) at Al Udeid Air Base, Qatar, provides command and control of air power throughout Iraq and Syria.
Pro-independence rally in Iraqi Kurdistan in 2017. The Kurdistan Regional Government announced it would respect the Supreme Federal Court's ruling that no Iraqi province is allowed to secede.
Protest in Baghdad in November 2019. The protests were the largest incident of civil unrest Iraq has experienced since the 2003 invasion.
Cheekha Dar, highest point in Iraq.
Iraq Köppen climate classification map.
The Asiatic lion has remained a prominent symbol of the country throughout history.
Baghdad Convention Center, the current meeting place of the Council of Representatives of Iraq.
View over Green Zone, which contains governmental headquarters and the army, in addition to containing the headquarters of the American embassy and the headquarters of foreign organizations and agencies for other countries.
US President Donald Trump with Iraqi Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi in 2017.
Administrative districts of Iraq
Historical GDP per capita development
Agriculture is the main occupation of the people.
Mosul Museum is the second largest museum in Iraq after the Iraq Museum in Baghdad. It contains ancient Mesopotamian artifacts.
Supertankers at the Basra Oil Terminal
Mosul Dam Lake
Lake Dukan
Children in a village in Sulaymaniyah.
Imam Hussein Shrine in Karbala
Mor Mattai Monastery (Dayro d-Mor Mattai) in, Bartella, Nineveh, Iraq. It is recognized as one of the oldest Christian monasteries in existence and is famous for its magnificent library and considerable collection of Syriac Christian manuscripts
Saddam Hussein Promoting women's literacy and education in the 1970s
University students in Iraq, 2016
Al-Mutanabi, regarded as one of the greatest, most prominent and influential poets in the Arabic language, much of his work has been translated into over 20 languages worldwide
Wasiti's illustrations served as an inspiration for the modern Baghdad art movement in the 20th-century.
Zaha Hadid (1950–2016), an acclaimed architect.
Facade of Temple at Hatra, declared World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1985.
The Queen's gold lyre from the Royal Cemetery at Ur. Iraq Museum, Baghdad.
Masgouf, a popular Iraqi dish.
Madina Stadium in Baghdad is Iraq's first-ever stadium solar power plant, and the second in the Middle East of its kind.
Iraq wall det 2003.
A partial view of the ruins of Babylon.
The siege of Baghdad by the Mongols.
Sunni Arabs
Shiite Arabs
Sunni Kurds
Assyrians
Yazidis
Turkmen

In 1980, Iraq invaded Iran, sparking a protracted war which would last for almost eight years, and end in a stalemate with devastating losses for both countries.

MOD forces include the Iraqi Army, the Iraqi Air Force, Iraqi Navy and Peshmerga, which, along with their security subsidiaries, are responsible for the security of the Kurdistan Region.

Tu-22 at the Monino, Russian Federation Central Air Force Museum

Tupolev Tu-22

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The first supersonic bomber to enter production in the Soviet Union.

The first supersonic bomber to enter production in the Soviet Union.

Tu-22 at the Monino, Russian Federation Central Air Force Museum
Tu-22 at the Monino, Russian Federation Central Air Force Museum
Tu-22 Blinder landing
Soviet engineer checks the 23-mm R-23 cannon in remotely controlled tail turret
A parked Tupolev Tu-22
A U.S. Navy F-4N belonging to VF-111 intercepts Tu-22s being delivered to Libya in 1977.
Tu-22KD with Kh-22 missile at Poltava Museum of Long-Range and Strategic Aviation
Tu-22U trainer
Former operators of the Tu-22
Orthographic projection of the Tupolev Tu-22.

The Tu-22 was one of the few Soviet jet bombers to see combat: Libyan Tu-22s were used against Tanzania and Chad, and Iraqi Tu-22s were used during the Iran–Iraq War.

Iraqi Air Force – received 12 aircraft. All destroyed during the Iran–Iraq War and Gulf War.